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The population of Baghdad, as of [update]is approximately 8,, [ citation needed ] [note 1] making it the largest city in Iraq, the second largest city in the Arab world after CairoEgyptand the second largest city in Western Asia after TehranIran. Located along the Tigris Riverthe city was founded in the 8th century ylrics became the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate.

Within a short time of its inception, Baghdad evolved into a significant cultural, lyrisc, and intellectual center for the Islamic world. This, in addition to housing kavjtha key academic institutions e. Baghdad was the largest city of the Middle Ages for much of the Abbasid era, peaking at a population of more than a million. With the recognition of Iraq as an independent state formerly the British Mandate of Mesopotamia inBaghdad gradually regained some lyrrics its former prominence as a significant center of Arab culture.

In contemporary times, the city has often faced severe infrastructural damage, most recently due to the invasion of Iraqand the subsequent Iraq War gagdad lasted until December In recent years, the city has been frequently subjected to insurgency attacks. The war had resulted in a substantial loss of cultural heritage and historical artifacts as well. As of [update]Baghdad was listed as one of the least hospitable places in the world to live, [6] and was ranked by Mercer as the worst of major cities as measured by quality-of-life.

The name Baghdad is pre-Islamic, and its origin is disputed. By the 8th century AD, several villages had developed there, including a Persian [9] [10] hamlet called Baghdad, the name which would come to be used for the Abbasid metropolis.

Arab authors, realizing the pre-Islamic origins of Baghdad’s name, generally looked for its roots in Persian. A few authors have suggested older origins for the name, in particular the name Bagdadu or Hudadu that existed in Old Babylonian spelled with a sign that can represent both bag and huand the Babylonian Talmudic name of a place called “Baghdatha”.

When the Abbasid caliph, al-Mansur lyrids, founded a completely new babdad for his capital, he chose the name Madinat al-Salaam or City of Peace. This was the official name on coins, weights, and other official usage, although the common people continued to use the old name. After the fall of the Umayyadsthe first Muslim dynasty, the victorious Abbasid rulers wanted their own capital from which they could rule.

They chose a site north of the Sassanid capital of Ctesiphon and also just north of where ancient Babylon had once stoodand on 30 July [23] the caliph Al-Mansur commissioned baydad construction of the city.

It was built under the supervision kavigha the Barmakids. Mansur loved the site so much he is quoted saying: The city’s growth was helped by lyics excellent location, based on at least two factors: Water exists on both the north and south ends of the city, allowing all households to have a plentiful supply, which was very uncommon during this time. Kavktha, all that remains of Ctesiphon is the shrine town of Salman Pakjust to the south of Greater Baghdad.

Ctesiphon itself had replaced and absorbed Seleuciathe first capital of the Seleucid Empirewhich had earlier replaced the city of Babylon. According to the traveler Ibn BattutaBaghdad was one of the largest cities, not including the damage it has received.

The residents are mostly Hanbal. Bagdad is also home to the grave of Abu Hanifa where there is a cell and a mosque above it. In its early years, the city was bzgdad as a deliberate reminder of an expression in the Qur’anwhen it refers to Paradise. Mansur assembled engineers, surveyors, and art constructionists from around the world to come together and draw up plans for the vagdad. Overconstruction workers came to survey the plans; many bagddad distributed salaries to start the building of the city.


Abu Hanifah was the counter of the bricks and he developed a canal, which brought water to the work site for both human consumption kavitga the manufacture of the bricks. Marble was also used to make buildings throughout the city, and marble steps led down to the river’s edge.

BAGHDAD-Malayalam Kavitha-Murukan Kattakada

The original design shows a single ring of residential and commercial structures along the inside of the city walls, but the final construction added another ring inside the first.

The purpose or use of the remaining space in the center is unknown. The circular design of the city was a direct reflection of the traditional Persian Sasanian urban design.

The Sasanian city of Gur in Farsbuilt years before Baghdad, is nearly identical in its general circular design, lyrifs avenues, and the government buildings and temples at the centre of the city. This style of urban planning contrasted with Ancient Greek and Roman urban planning, in which cities are designed as squares or rectangles with streets intersecting each other at right angles. The four surrounding walls bagdac Baghdad were named KufaBasraKhurasanand Syria ; named because their gates pointed bavdad the directions of these destinations.

Kxvitha distance between these gates was a little less than 2. Each gate had double doors that were made of iron; the doors were so heavy it took several men to open and close them.

The second wall had towers and rounded merlons, which surrounded the towers. This outer wall was protected by a solid glaciswhich is made out of bricks and quicklime. Beyond the outer wall was a water-filled moat. The Golden Gate Palace, the residence of the caliph and his family, was in the middle of Baghdad, in the central square. Surrounding the palace was an esplanadea waterside building, in which only the caliph could come riding on horseback. In addition, the palace was near other mansions and officer’s residences.

Near the Gate of Syria, a building served as the home for the guards. It was made of brick and marble. The palace governor lived in the latter part of the building and the commander of the guards in the front.

Inafter the death of caliph Al-Aminthe palace was no longer used as the home for the caliph and his family. The justification for the Abbasid Caliphate was based on the Abbasids being the descendants of the uncle of Muhammad and being part of the Quraysh tribe.

They used Shi’a resentment, Khorasanian movement, and appeals to the ambitions and traditions of the newly conquered Persian aristocracy to overthrow the Umayyads. The Abbasids considered themselves the inheritors of Arab-Islamic culture. Harun al-Rashid needed to place the capital in a place that was representative of Arab-Islamic identity and built the House of Wisdomwhere ancient texts were translated from their original language, such as Greek, to Arabic. Al-Ma’mun is credited with the ” Translation Movement ” for this.

Within a generation of its founding, Baghdad became a hub of learning and commerce. Baytul-Hikmah or the “House of Wisdom”, initially founded as a library for private use by Harun al-Rashidflourished into an unrivaled intellectual center of sciencemedicinephilosophyand education and had the largest selection of books in the world by the middle of the 9th century.

Among the notable features of Baghdad during this period were its exceptional libraries. Many of the Abbasid caliphs were patrons of learning and enjoyed collecting both ancient and contemporary literature. Although some of the princes of the previous Umayyad dynasty had begun to gather and translate Greek scientific literature, the Abbasids were the first to foster Greek learning on a large scale.

Many of these libraries were private collections intended only for the use of the owners and their immediate friends, but the libraries of the caliphs and other officials soon took on a public or a semi-public character.


The earliest was that of the famous Al Mamun, who was caliph from to Another was established by Sabur Ibn Ardashir in or for the literary men and scholars who frequented his academy.

This was a good example of the sort of library built up out of the needs and interests of a literary society. The Mustansiriyah madrasawhich owned an exceedingly rich library, was founded by Al Mustansir, the second last Abbasid caliph, who died in By the 10th century, the city’s population was between 1.

Inthey destroyed the Ghaznavidstaking over their land and inTughril Begthe leader of the Seljuks, took over Baghdad. The Seljuks expelled the Buyid dynasty of Shiites that had ruled for some time and took over power and control of Baghdad.

They ruled as Sultans in the name of the Abbasid caliphs they saw themselves as being part of the Abbasid regime. Tughril Beg saw himself as the protector of the Abbasid Caliphs. The Mongols massacred most of the city’s inhabitants, including the caliph Al-Musta’simbagdda destroyed large sections of the city.

The canals and dykes forming the city’s irrigation system were also destroyed. During this time, in Baghdad, Christians and Shia were tolerated, while Sunnis were treated as enemies. At this point, Baghdad was ruled by the Ilkhanatea breakaway state lyricss the Mongol Empire, ruling from Iran. Baghdad Eyalet in CE. Baghdad Vilayet in CE.

InBaghdad was bwgdad by the Ottoman Turks. Under lgrics OttomansBaghdad continued hagdad a period of decline, partially as a result of the enmity between its rulers and Iranian Safavids, which did not accept the Sunni control of the city.

BAGHDAD-Malayalam Kavitha-Murukan Kattakada

Between andit returned to Iranian rule before falling back into Ottoman hands. Baghdad has suffered severely from visitations of the plague and cholera[52] and sometimes two-thirds of its population has been wiped out. For a time, Baghdad had been the largest city in the Middle East.

The city saw relative revival in the latter part of the 18th century under a Mamluk government. InBaghdad became the capital of the British Mandate of Mesopotamia and after receiving independence inthe capital of the Kingdom of Iraq. The city’s population grew from an estimatedin toin During the Mandate, Baghdad’s substantial Jewish community comprised a quarter of the city’s population.

Many of the victim’s bodies were then dragged through the streets of Baghdad. During the s, Baghdad experienced a period of prosperity and growth because of a sharp increase in the price of petroleumIraq’s main export.

New infrastructure including modern sewerage, water, and highway facilities were built during this period. Iran launched a number of missile attacks against Baghdad in retaliation for Saddam Hussein’s continuous bombardments of Tehran’s residential districts.

In andthe Gulf War and the invasion of Iraq caused significant damage to Baghdad’s transportation, powerand sanitary infrastructure as the US-led coalition forces launched massive aerial assaults in the city in the two wars. Also inthe minor riot in the city which took place on 21 July caused some disturbance in the population.

The community has kavithz subject to kidnappings, death threats, vandalism, and house burnings by Al-Qaeda and other insurgent groups.

As of the end ofonly 1, Assyrians remained in Dora. Points of interest include the National Museum of Iraq whose priceless collection of artifacts was looted during the invasion, and the iconic Hands of Victory arches. Multiple Iraqi parties are in discussions as to whether the arches should remain as kavithz monuments or be dismantled.

Thousands of ancient manuscripts in the National Library were destroyed under Saddam ‘s command. It is the historic center of Baghdadi book-selling, a street filled with bookstores and outdoor book stalls. It was named after the 10th-century classical Iraqi poet Al-Mutanabbi.

The zoological park used to be the largest in the Middle East.