texto para historia sociopolitica de la educacion argentina, Universidad nacional de rosario. Historia de Las Universidades Argentinas: Pablo Buchbinder: Books – Buchbinder, Pablo. Historia de las universidades argentinas. Buenos Aires: Sudamericana, Buchrucker, Cristian. “Interpretations of Peronism: Old.
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Choosing a Private University in Buenos Aires: The purpose of this study is to analyze the spatial and esthetical dimensions of university choices by middle-high and high-class young people from Buenos Aires; a phenomenon that has been barely addressed by socio-anthropologic studies on higher education. This ethnographic research intends to understand the dynamics of reproducing and producing social and educational inequalities in universities and college clubs.
It reconstructs the phenomenon of class spatialization in universities, which is explained by both the institutional expansion of the private and state sectors and the appearance of highly segmented education markets. The selection of university based on the different scales and dimensions of space —localization and population addressed by the institutions, perceptions on college infrastructure, and meanings that associate university with place and social classes- justifies proposing the spatialization of higher education choices as a heuristically productive category to situationally understand meanings and power relationships involved in processes of education privatization, articulating urban and educational segregations.
The title for this paper reflects a situation experienced by young people from middle-high and high sectors in Buenos Aires: This need for an explanation has its particular characteristics in Argentina: Four historical moments may be mentioned as having a strong impact on the association between university and social class: UUauthorized during the end of the s; and the appearance of state-funded universities in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires outskirtswhich occurred in two moments: The growth of private and state funded universities in different parts of Argentina as well as the increasing complexity of socio-educational circuits force us to look beyond the structural differences between both types of educational institutions: In the case of PP.
However, this huge distinction does not explain itself the processes of competition for applicants or the growth of enrollments at higher private education during the last years. Higher education massification, institutional diversification and expansion of the private sector CHIROLEU,and privatization of enrollments are all articulated processes: Based on ethnography of families from privileged positions, we intend to describe how the decision to study at a private university is made by young people from middle-high and high sectors through a dimension that is not frequently used in studies on education choices: We think that choice is not an individual act to maximize advantages but rather a decisional process in which several actors are involved — in this case, young people, families, university marketers, academic counselors psychologists, educational psychologists, etc.
Deviating from approaches focused on the rationale actor theory, we think that choices are made in specific spaces that involve buchbinxer types of criteria and meanings: The spatialization of choices is a dimension that has been barely studied.
With this concept we point out that space is not just a dimension related to the contex t of a choice.
In keeping with the development in urban anthropology CHAVES; SEGURA,we argue that urban space and actors build the city dialectically; that the space for mobility and socialization conditions the perceptions of the landscape, the city, the places owned and those of others.
The universiddes dimension has been analyzed by studies on education but they have not used an ethnographic approach. These studies localize the phenomenon of the increasing demand for higher education and massification processes, and provide demographic data revealing quantitative dynamics of territorial inequities. Perosa, Lebaron and Kerches da Silva Leite have shown how the poorest regions of Sao Paolo account for most inequalities by analyzing universifades achievements in relation to urban infrastructure and public services.
Both authors show the impact of socioeconomic transformations on the sociability experience by young people at university and the argdntinas distances that they have to go through with respect to space to participate in college life. The universidadrs included open interviews 3 to 52 individuals young people, adults, representatives of universities and social clubs for their students, etc.
Fieldwork was done through two types of access: These young people attended different private and public universities. The young people interviewed attended public or private universities located in CABA or the Northern Area and therefore, the survey on their choices revolved around the past.
Several criteria were used to laz education choices6 but this work focuses on studying the spatial aspect.
Córdoba, University of
Space is conceived in different scales and dimensions: Data provided by Argentina Secretary of Education ARGENTINA, confirm the rise of school enrollments at the private sector, particularly during the period of and more notoriously, at primary and university levels. The hiwtoria slows down in the subsequent years, especially in high and technical education; the enrollment for primary schools keeps growing and it decreases at university level by The latest figures to which we have had access from show a population of 1, students at university level, The infrastructure availability for the same year is of institutions, Institutional diversification results in unequal distribution: According to Histofia and other authorsan increasing economic growth explains the higher school segregation; that is to say, the consolidation of school circuits based on social sectors in which private-funded education increases in middle and high sectors when the economic growth rises.
Private schools are demanded and tailor-made by middle classes and public schools respond to no demand because, in their view —with which we do not agree-popular sectors do not present demands for quality education.
According to these authors, the development of the private sector, as a result of the state bucjbinder to private schools under Act frommay be construed as an offer strategy that might indicate that public and private education are complementary, or as an education expansion taking place in both sectors.
However, the same authors show that private education was experiencing an increase during the years prior to the passing of the Act, making it necessary to wonder if there was a previous demand from society that resulted in the legal framework. Taking into consideration the context of the socioeconomic crisis suffered in Argentina during the s, Kessler examined the way in which schools were shaped by buhcbinder attending or targeted population rather than the other way around; this was also pointed out by Tiramonti Teaching, assistance and care provision jointly helped understand the recent transformations in the expansion of the private education.
Urban life movements of privileged sectors have been historically related to the expansion of the education service. Life in the gated communities of the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires AMBA was perceived as safer, calm and esthetical, resulting in the relocalization of those sectors —that began during the second half of the 20th Century- and the creation of private elementary and high schools in the Northern Area.
It is a proximity experienced from a perception of a continuing territory, as a solution to the social demands from these sectors; a junction with residence, education, health, place of work and sociability8. As told by an interviewed girl who has a weekend house in Villa de Mayo: Imagine going back and forth every day, at least an hour and a half traveling! If the greatest development of private neighborhoods and gated communities in the Northern area occurred during the s SVAMPA,the growth of the children from those families, who have finished high school at private institutions, explains a greater demand for higher private education in the region.
There is a diversified offer of university education9 in the Northern area. The presence of state and private universities in the Northern corridor of AMBA has risen over the last two decades. In the case of the state offer, it includes new campuses from traditional universities and newly established institutions.
The establishment of CBC centers gives students better access to university courses, decentralizing it.
The opening event for the latest center is key to understanding this policy. The statement is addressing an audience that thinks unviersidades the university in terms of employability. There are no mentions with respect to educating professionals yniversidades closely associated with middle or high sectors with university tradition. Moreover, it highlights the social role played by university on solving problems from a specific territory. The recent public universities created during the s include: This institution started offering undergraduate courses in after carrying out several researches to determine its mission based on the context in which it was located argentimas Its Statutes and Regulations provide:.
To develop a University that shall not exclude, helping to reduce asymmetrical experiences: Free tuition is guaranteed for undergraduate and graduate courses: The purpose of social pabll and reduction of inequality are explicitly mentioned and their audience is the population that used to be excluded. Paz is established in the district under the same name: As pointed out by Cardozo and Lorenzogeographic localization has historically led to unequal access to higher education since institutions have been established in urban cores.
Given the complex urban grid of Buenos Aires, strategies of establishing universities or campuses in new locations indicate an attempt of overcoming inequalities by territorial policies. The places chosen psblo the Northern area by those institutions refer to young people from middle-low and low sectors: Universidad del Salvador established its campus Pilar branch in During the past years, UA has moved the degree courses offered in the city to its campus in Pilar and its building in CABA histkria currently composed of postgraduate programs, seminars and administrative units.
It established its campus in the district of San Histogia and developed degree programs on social sciences and humanities Law, Education, Economics, Business Administration, etc. InUniversidad Argentina John F. Universidad de Ciencias Empresariales y Sociales established in the second decade of two annexes in the Northern area: San Isidro and Olivos. Universidad de Belgrano opened a university center in in Tigre. The following description from a university exemplifies the way argfntinas which PP.
They may choose a public institution, especially UBA, but the target audience in the Northern area is characterized by social class diversification. During their expansion, PP. A region of education competition has been developed in lax pseudo-market whose target is different from that of the public universities, which is clearly associated with middle-low sectors, young people from families with universudades higher education.
According to data provided by this institution:. And by Capital, I mainly mean downtown and the North. The North corridor matches our previous description of the Northern area.
That territorial origin is associated with social sectors that have gone through the private education circuit, are mostly ujiversidades and generally live in gated communities and private neighborhoods. The criteria for university choice are based on proximity and family both in terms of territory and social homogeneity.
These criteria, which have already been spotted by universities during their market analysisexplain the design of an education policy of relocating university services. The rationale and creation of an imaginary space from which students are addressed go hand in hand with an education policy of territorially-based services.
Even though inequalities exist within the Northern areaeach type of institution will address different types of students depending on the socio-economic profile that is being targeted.
In this scenario, the demand for PP. When choosing university, young people give great value to infrastructure.
Choosing a Private University in Buenos Aires: choice spatialization in diversified contexts I
Attention is sometimes paid to the universidadrs effect, particularly if the buildings are modern, trendy and green with gardens, yards and parks. Buhcbinder decision is also dependent on the equipment, laboratories, computers, internet access, etc.
This set of values applied to the chosen university was mentioned by students from public and private institutions. Even though this may not be the case for all PP. A university that also offers that continuity of experience with its values weighs strongly when making the decision. When I asked Pedro, who lives in an exclusive private neighborhood in Pilar, why he decided to study afgentinas the campus of Universidad del Salvador in the same district, his instant reply was: This similarity combines two elements: On the other, the organization of classroom hours: Those who had chosen new public universities from AMBA expressed their surprise by their infrastructure: This refers to a process characterized by the growth — massification of the education level- and damages in building conditions due to lack of state financing during the s and mainly, the s.
With no maintenance of the pablp and scarce state resources, public universities experienced a growth in their populations which resulted in a building imaginary argenitnas precariousness, insufficient infrastructure — many students in small rooms- and no less important, ugly buildings, as portrayed and pointed out to this researcher while speaking to students on those places.
This model has been changing sinceparticularly, in the case of universities from the outskirts of Buenos Aires — including higher investments on university infrastructure, adequate room capacity, etc.
As we have shown, the effects of the previous process have nevertheless persisted in the ways in which university universidaes are perceived. The search for certain social homogeneity is present at both sides of the offer-demand relationship.