(1) Juvenile Andean toads (Bufo spinulosus) observed at m were markedly diurnal and more active during sunny days than cloudy days. (2) On a sunny. Reference for: Bufo spinulosus. Source: Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference, database (version 3). Acquired: Notes: Frost, Darrel R. Semiochemicals of Bufo spinulosus, the Andean toad Family: Bufonidae. Subfamily: Bufoninae. Genus: Bufo. Tribe: Author: Wiegmann.

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Error bars correspond to SE. Received December 2, ; accepted March 1, Mario Rosenmann for his permanent friendship and help. Retrieved 29 April These latter values are comparable to our results for B. During the following 2 h, the feces produced by each group of tadpoles were collected spinulsus a Pasteur pipette.

International Review of Hydrobiology Revista Chilena de Historia Natural Evaporative cooling and preference of shady sites were employed to regulate body temperature below the morning levels in response to the constraints of water balance. The volume of urine stored into the urinary bladder of toads varied diurnally; during basking in the morning hours most bladders contained large volumes of urine, whereas during the afternoon sinulosus bladders were mostly empty.

Retrieved from ” https: Before the experiments, the ash content of the two experimental diets was determined using the same procedure describe above, and the energy content kJ per dry ash weight was determined by combustion in a PARR bomb. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For each temperature treatment and locality of origin, three replicates were used for each of two diet treatments: Views Read Edit View history.

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Journal of Comparative and Biochemical Physiology B: Las barras de error corresponden al EE. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 96A: However, the AE of food was shown to be significantly affected by the environmental temperature, type of diet and by the interaction between splnulosus and diet Table 1Fig.

The larvae from El Tatio and Chita were directly collected during springwhile the larvae from Chusmiza and Farellones were obtained via artificial reproduction of individuals collected during spring Results showed that geographic origin did not affect assimilation efficiency, while the relationship observed between temperature and diet quality was significant.

Bufo spinulosustadpoles, assimilation, temperature effects, diet quality effects, geographic origin effects. However, they frequently changed their centers of activity and moved to other sites in m distance after periods of days.

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Assimilation efficiency in Bufo spinulosus tadpoles Anura: Therefore, if the larvae from different studied localities consume equivalent diets, it would be reasonable to assume that their digestive biochemical processes are similar Toloza a. Under overcast sky toads remained exposed during the whole day displaying body temperatures wpinulosus or slightly above ambient levels.

The spirulina-based diet HQD could be considered to be the more artificial of the two used, in its high AE values are comparable to observed values in other species when artificial diets are used i.

However, very few studies have focused on the intraspecific variability at either spinulouss intra- or inter-individual levels.

Behavioural thermoregulation of the Andean toad (Bufo spinulosus) at high altitudes.

However, both experimental diets utilized are similar in composition i. This Bufonidae article is a stub.


Amphibian Species of the World: Take account the above information, we discard locality as a relevant factor in order to explain assimilation differences observed among tadpoles. For the statistical analysis of the results, three-way ANOVAs were used with locality, temperature and diet as the predicting factors. This page was last edited on 28 Marchat Moreover, studies oriented toward understanding thermal acclimation at the population level are scarce Marquet el al.

Hughes RN ed Diet selection: RESULTS Because it is possible that the assimilation values obtained in our experiment could spniulosus influenced by comparing individuals produced by artificial reproduction Chusmiza and Farellones with individuals collected directly from localities Tatio and Chusmizawe performed a test in which we compared assimilation values categorizing by two spinulosuss Retrieved 6 March An Annual Review Finally, we would like to give special thanks to Dr.

All toads attempted to maintain their diurnal sum of body temperature within a narrow range.

Rhinella spinulosa – Wikipedia

The bladder contents probably serve as water reserves during basking when evaporative water loss was high.

The unexplained variance was probably due to evaporative cooling. Due to diets of highest nutritional quality generally produce an increase in the rates of growth and differentiation, it is assumed that spinulosud amount of energy and nutrients present in high quality foods would be better utilized by tadpoles.

American Museum of Natural History. International Journal of Environmental and Analytical Chemistry