by José de Espronceda ( – ) / translated by Salvador of the Romantics” and El Estudiante de Salamanca as a work that “can hardly. Poesias Liricas, El estudiante de Salamanca has 24 ratings and 1 review. Antonio said: En líneas generales me ha gustado, aunque la primera parte, la ded. Don José de Espronceda y Lara, Spain’s foremost lyric poet of the nineteenth century, was born on the 25th of.
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Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Perez All rights reserved. No part of this publication covered by the copyright hereon may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means—graphic, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, or information retrieval systems—without written permission. The first number comprised essays on Hispanic Childrens Literature while the second treated the Literature of Exile and Expatriation, Sub- sequent volumes have treated such themes as marginal genres, women poets, the cuento, and Experimental Fiction by Hispanic Women Writers.
Authors whose works are accepted for publication should be subscribers for at least the year in question. Una propuesta poetica desde la locura Eduardo Barros Grela Eduardo Mendoza’s El misterio de la cripta embrujada Frieda H. Confesiones y terrores de lecturas compartidas Raul lanes Because academic publishing may be a high-risk endeavor, subj ects not in the mainstream may be shunted aside, as has happened in the recent past with the particular genres and topics featured in earlier volumes.
While not all of equal sig- nificance, many non-canonical writers and subjects are worthy of more serious consideration than they have received heretofore and have much to offer investigators of contemporary myths and culture in regard to the mentality of the age, societal values, and the process esproneda change.
Even texts and topics of marginal ortransitory literary significance can yield valuable historical and sociological insights, and ds that sense, the present volume, examining hysteria, hallucination and madness in hispanic litera- tures, is paradigmatic.
The monographic format was selected because of its combination of the convenience and greater com- prehensiveness ofbook form with the versatility ofthe periodical. With rare exception, each number has been monographic in treating a single topic or writer while offering a variety of critical viewpoints esoronceda methodologies.
Belknap P of Harvard UP, The Problem of Female Identity.
El Estudiante de Salamanca (Classic Reprint)
Conde y Stephen Hart. Lewiston, NY; Mellen, Disease and Its Interpretations. Ontanon de Lope, Paciencia. Ana Ozores, La Regenta: UniversidadNacional Autonomade Mexico, Gender, Identity, and Strategy in La Regenta. U of North CarolinaP, Espronceda’s text embodies in addition to an intricate interplay of genres and styles, aprotagonist steeped in his own madness.
While the decline ofDon Felix into the failed sensibilities of love, desperation and suicide has been studied from the genea- logical angle of the Romantic character see Sherman and Yanezan evaluation of the textual and archetypal signifiers thatpoint to this madness is lacking. Keeping with the theme of madness, Donald Schurlknight explicates alink between the narrative voice andthe structure of the poem, but focuses on the connection between the verses and the implied reader These pages attempt, in deference to Schurlknight’s work, a structural and archetypal reading ofEspronceda’s Don Juan to better understand the themes of sexuality, insanity, and necrophilia extant in the text.
El estudiante de Salamanca begins with a man, Don Felix, ambulating through the streets at a ghoulish hour as the physical world stands on its head. In the second and third act, the text regresses in time to explain Felix’s ghostly walk after suffering near-defeat in a duel with the brother of a spurned lover.
XXVI Felix chances upon a spectral apparition and begins to pursue her into a subterranean tomb. It is here that the text reaches its struc- tural and thematic climax as Felix kisses what we learn to be the cadaver of his spurned lover, securing him in an eternal tomb of darkness.
The Don Juanesque modus operandi that is alluded to in the work has been analyzed ad nauseum. Loving and leaving a woman, thereby never taking a relationship to fruition can be viewed as latent homosexuality, but this interpretation does not lend itself to the structural conclusion of El estudiante. The Spanish thinker, Gregorio Maranon, radicalized the study of the Don Juan figure in the early twentieth century in his essay “Notas para una biologia de Don Juan” He follows and builds upon an extensive list of Spanish scholars who dwell on the prototypical womanizer.
Mara- flon investigates the idea of masculinity and by including the idea of eugenics and the discourses of nationalism, melds a scientific approximation to the literary figure though in his own writings he acknowledges his shortcomings in bringing science to the literary world. While Marafton does not actively cite the Don Juan figure as being a homosexual, he does suggest that he is effeminate. William Stekel, who was heavily cited by Maranon, implicates Don Juan within an idea of the homosexual “neurosis ” What was once scientifically viewed as a disease or a choice has now been thought of as otherwise.
Yet though our ideas of what sexuality and gender are have drastically changed from the early twentieth century, our ideas of the Don Juanfigure have not.
El estudiante de Salamanca – Wikipedia
Yokota-Muiakami using a comparative method finds ample evidence of homosexual or at least bisexual tendencies in Japanese depictions of the topos. Elizabeth Nash goes on to view the origins ofDon Juan as a homo- sexual. She cites Maranon who asserts that the Don Juan persona in fact hates women and is incapable of loving or being loved by them. Immanuel Velikovsky further adds to the debate, that: All these writers echo Stekel’s turn-of-the-century diagnosis.
But is every Don Juan character a simple, repressed homo- sexual?
Is Felix’s inability to express a repressed desire for his own gender at the root of his own madness? Carl Jung talks esptonceda two possibilities stemming from the unbreaking of the bond between mother and son in adulthood, due in part to the lack of a father figure. The first is estudiantee by homosexuality, as the malenever frees himself from bonding with the mother, whereas the second scenario involves a full-fledged voyage of finding the idealized and deified mother that he never possessed.
The idea of the homo- sexual Don Juan is borne from this first notion that the repetitive game of seduction and abandonment is symptomatic of the inability to identify with the father and to establish an attraction towards the feminine. El estudiante de Salamancaposits an interesting Don Wspronceda as it is composed in verse joes not prose or theatre. Therefore in addi- tion to the presentation of neurosis extant in the work, we can also observe the poetic traits of the text as a reflection of psychical symptoms.
Before focusing on the structural aspects of the poem, however, examination of the use of the masculine and feminine and how they come to delineate the anima and the animus, concepts that Jung uses estudiiante describing the female and male archetypes in the collective conscience, is warranted.
Depictions of the feminine bring to fruition a construction of the anima as an entity in the text. This entity when underdeveloped or impacted by stress points creates a set of neuroses. One such neurosis involves a projection of the anima, which is in most cases the idealized mother, onto unsuspecting women. It represents the unconscious estudiahte associated with the masculine archetype in the psyche of the woman. They exist within the psyche as mutually exclusive facets, but change in the first sexual differen- tiation of the individual in question.
Jung postulates that the individual maintains both factors of the psyche without losing the other. In the man, the qualities of the animus are furthered during the differentiation and growth of the person, while the qualities of the anima are repressed. In the woman, the opposite occurs. As Freud has discussed, the subject must assimilate qualities of the father-challenger to the affections of the mother as desired obj ect. Maranon, interestingly enough, has similar thoughts on the idea of the masculine and the feminine within the individual, although unlike Jung, his thoughts delve into the physiological and salamancx aspects of human existence.
Citing Maranon, Wright notes that “cada hombre, o la inmensamayoria de ellos, llevanun fantasma de mujer, no en la imagination, que entonces tal vez seria facil expulsarle, sino circulando en la sangre” Similarly, “cada mujer [lleva] esproncdea fantasma, mas o menos concreto del hombre” He adds that “esa mujer o ese hombre en esbozo, y no los de fuera, los de ce y hueso, son los que pueden conducir al dolor yalpecado” Returning to Jung, when the development of the anima is not one of integration, one can observe two distinct psychological states, both of which can be categorized as neurosis.
Jung defines neurosis as being a discord between the consc iousness of man saamanca the archetypal world; in this case the anima. The first of these afflictions is that ofpossession, with the second being projection. The male subject unequivocally projects the characteristics of the anima within his unconscious onto the unsuspecting woman, negating her true qualities.
Portraying Don Felix as aneurotic is evident in his dialogues on religion and the self. His megalomania in relation to God and even Venkatesh the Devil is expressed when he exalts: He furthers his rejection of the spiritual in the fourth act, when he deflates God’s influence nose existence by further pursuing the cadaver: His disdain does not stop at the spiritual but is also reserved for men. In the third act and in the company salamanfa the other gamblers, the text signals: Jkse third act is not composed in verse but in a dramatic script.
Here we are duly introduced to the protagonist viahis dialogue and actions with the other gamblers. Structurally speaking, the stylistic shift provides agency to the character.
We evidence by way of theatre his conscious actions and speech, which is contrasted with the liberty and fluidity of the verses, which by nature linguistically absolve the subj ect from agency and point towards an unconscious understanding of character. In addition to showing a disdain for God and others, he is in denial ofhimself and his own fate.
As this act is one of the conscious mind, Don Felix shows aprecocious mortality when he notes that: He also exemplifies an over-confidence in himself when he describes his affair with Elvira, citing that: The use of the preterit in the first two lines establishes a distance not only between the present amongst the gamblers and the brother and the past, but also between Felix and the woman as object.
By sallamanca “hoy en diahe asserts that in apast time women did die from love. This perhaps is a metaliterary al lusion to the trope of the damsel in distress who perishes when her love is rejected. He is conscious of this and in a tongue-in-cheek way implies that he can cause the death of a xe upon loving and leavingher. This vanity combined with other aspects of anima possession create an augmented ego Cardwell 16which although typical of the Romantic hero is in effect indicative of a poorly integrated anima.
Cardwell’s augmented ego is in discord with the archetypal worldandin away is also in discord with the libidinal instincts. The latter point is a Freudian observation as an inflated ego carries by implication a libido that has not developed at the same pace.
The Student of Salamanca / El estudiante de salamanca
This anima neurosis results in the phenomenon of projection of the unintegrated feminine characteristics, estjdiante approximate the mother-imago onto unsuspecting women. The idea of projecting aspects of the unconscious onto an external object is a primordial characteristic of the typical Don Juan Rank According to Rank, the fantasy of conquering an innumerable quantity of women, which converts one into the macho ideal, is plainly based on the salamancca of the mother.
Each conquest is then a substitute in compensation for her. The neurosis culminates when the Don Juan character needs to leave the woman he has just conquered, as after possessing her, he realizes that she is not the mother, and therein starts the cycle once more, as all that he has managed to conquer is the projection.
Rank affirms that “the continually repeated sexual conquest of women remains unsatisfying, for the reason that the infantile tendency to regress to the mother can only be sala,anca fulfilled” Don Felix is known to be a Don Juan in the text by way of his jjose with the other gamblers in the third act. He belligerently objectifies the woman when the third gambler offers: Don Felix, habeisperdido solo el marco, estudianhe el retrato, que entrar la dama en el trato vuestraintencion no habra sido.
The gambler pointedly differentiates between the woman and the portrait whereas Felix wants to know how much the other will offer for the woman herself.