Molars that are malformed due to enamel hypoplasia, enamel hypocalcification, or amelogenesis imperfecta routinely challenge dentists who treat children A tooth which has been disturbed during its formation may develop atypical or abnormal enamel. This is usually seen as a white, yellow, or brown discoloration . What is enamel hypocalcification? Enamel hypocalcification (sometimes mistakenly called enamel hypoplasia) is a condition where the enamel does not form.

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Enamel hypocalcification is a defect of tooth enamel in which normal amounts of enamel are produced but are hypomineralized. In this defect the enamel is softer than normal. Some areas in enamel are hypocalcified: Causal factors may occur locally, enamsl only a single tooth, or they may act systemically, affecting all teeth in which enamel is being formed.

Local trauma or abscess formation can adversely affect the ameloblasts overlying a developing crownresulting in enamel hypocalcification or hypoplasia. Affected teeth may have areas of coronal discoloration, or they may have actual pits and irregularities. This hypocacification most commonly seen in permanent teeth in which the overlying deciduous tooth becomes abscessed or is physically forced into the enamel organ of the neamel tooth.

The resulting hypoplastic or hypocalcified permanent tooth is sometimes known as Turner’s tooth.

Local trauma or abscess formation can adversely affect the ameloblasts overlying a developing crown, resulting in enamel hypocalcification or hypoplasia. Enamel hypoplasia is a defect of the teeth in which the enamel is hard but thin and deficient in amount,[1] caused by defective enamel matrix formation. Usually the condition involves part of the tooth having a pit in it.

In some cases, the natural enamel crown has a hole in it, and in extreme cases, the tooth has no enamel, exposing the dentin. Causes It can be caused by any of the following: Its appearance is variable, though usually is manifested as a portion of missing or diminished enamel on permanent teeth. Unlike other abnormalities which affect a vast number of teeth, Turner’s hypoplasia usually affects only one tooth in the mouth Parts of a tooth, including the enamel cross section.

Tooth enamel is one of the four major tissues that make up the tooth in humans and many other animals, including some species of fish. It makes up the normally visible part of the tooth, covering the crown. The other major tissues are dentin, cementum, and dental pulp. It is a very hard, white to off-white, highly mineralised substance that acts as a barrier to protect the tooth but can become susceptible to degradation, especially by acids from food and drink.

Once fully formed, enamel does not contain blood vessels or nerves. Remineralisation of teeth can repair damage to the tooth to a certain deg Hand, foot, and mouth disease HFMD is a common infection caused by a group of viruses.

Dental fluorosis also termed mottled enamel [1] is an extremely common[2] disorder, characterized by hypomineralization of tooth enamel caused by ingestion of excessive fluoride during enamel formation.

The severity of the condition is dependent on the dose, duration, and age of the individual during the exposure. In the “mild” form of the disease, these mottled patches can involve up to half of the surface area of the teeth. When fluorosis is moderate, all of the surfaces of the teeth are mottled and teeth may be ground down and brown stains frequently “disfigure” the teeth.

Severe fluorosis is characterized by brown discoloration and discrete or confluent pittin Tooth discoloration also termed tooth staining is abnormal tooth color, hue or translucency. Internal discoloration is due to absorption of pigment particles into tooth structure. Shingles, also known as herpes zoster, is a viral disease characterized by a painful skin rash with blisters in a localized area.


Herpes labialis, commonly known as cold sores, is a type of infection by the herpes simplex virus that affects primarily the lip. Oral allergy syndrome OAS is a type of food allergy classified by a cluster of allergic reactions in the mouth and throat in response to eating certain usually fresh fruits, nuts, and vegetables that typically develops in adults with hay fever.

Therefore, OAS is only seen in people with seasonal pollen allergies, and mostly people who are allergic to tree pollen. The body’s immune system produces IgE antibodies against pollen; in OAS, these antibodies also bind to or cross-react with othe Parotitis is an dnamel of one or both parotid glands, the major salivary glands located on either side of the face, in humans.

The parotid gland is the salivary gland most commonly affected by inflammation. This is a common, non-infectious cause of parotitis.

enamel hypocalcification

It may occur in elderly or after surgery. Bacterial parotitis presents as a unilateral swelling, where the gland is swollen and tender and usually produces pus at the Stensen’s duct.

This pus is usually sampled and the bacteria within are identified. Common causative enamsl are Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and E coli. It is associated with poor oral hygiene; oral infections and decreased saliva production. Symptoms include fever, dehydration, chills, fast heartbeat and bre Gingivitis is a non-destructive disease that causes inflammation of the gums. Most forms of gingivitis are plaque-induced.

Periodontitis can ultimately lead to tooth loss. Swollen gums Bright red or purple gums Gums that are tender or painful to the touch Bleeding gums or bleeding after Crohn’s disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease IBD that may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus.

Periodontal hhpocalcification, also known as gum disease, is a set of inflammatory conditions affecting the tissues surrounding the teeth. Alveolar osteitis, also known enakel dry socket, is inflammation of the alveolar bone i.

Classically, this occurs as a postoperative complication of tooth extraction. Alveolar osteitis usually occurs where the blood clot fails to form or is lost from the socket i.

This leaves an empty socket where bone is exposed to the oral cavity, causing a localized alveolar osteitis limited to the lamina dura i.

This specific type is known as dry socket and is nypocalcification with increased pain and delayed healing time.

Enamel hypocalcification | Revolvy

Since alveolar osteitis is not primar Pericoronitis from the Greek peri, “around”, Latin corona “crown” and -itis, “inflammation” also known as operculitis, is inflammation of the soft tissues surrounding the crown of a partially erupted tooth,[1] including the gingiva gums and the dental follicle.

The synonym operculitis technically refers to inflammation of the operculum alone. Pericoronitis is caused by an accumulation of bacteria and debris beneath the operculum, hypocalciification by mechanical trauma e. Measles Koplik spots also Koplik’s sign are a prodromic viral enanthem of measles manifesting two to three days before the measles rash itself. As well as their diagnostic significance they are important in the control of outbreaks.

Their appearance, in context of a diagnosed case, before they reach maximum infectivity, permits isolation of the contacts and greatly aids control of this highly infectious disease. Enders and Hylocalcification Peebles, who first isolated measles virus were careful to collect their samples from patients showing Koplik’s spots.

Geographic tongue, also known by several other terms,[note 1] is an inflammatory condition of the mucous membrane of the tongue, usually on the dorsal hypocalcirication. The name comes from the map-like appearance of the tongue,[8] with the patches resembling the islands of an archipelago. Uncommonly, geographic tongue may cause a burning sensation on the tongue, for which various treatments have been described with little formal evidence of efficacy.


Signs and symptoms The appearance of geographic tongue is variable from one person to the next and fnamel over time. The bottom image shows fissured tongue combined with geographic tongue.

It is common for these two condi Cheilitis is inflammation of the lips. Cheilitis can be either acute or chronic. Pyogenic granuloma also known as a “eruptive hemangioma”, “granulation tissue-type hemangioma”, “granuloma gravidarum”, “lobular capillary hemangioma”, hypocalcifjcation tumor”, and “tumor of pregnancy”[1][2] is a vascular lesion that occurs on both mucosa and skin, and appears as an overgrowth of tissue hjpocalcification to irritation, physical trauma, or hormonal factors.

In pregnant women, lesions may occur in the first trimester with an increasing incidence up until the seventh month, and are often seen on the gums. Younger lesions are more likely to be red because of the high number of blood vessels.

Herpangina, also called mouth blisters, is a painful mouth infection caused by coxsackieviruses. Usually, herpangina is produced by one particular strain of coxsackie virus A and the term “herpangina virus” refers to coxsackievirus A [1] but it can also be caused by coxsackievirus B or echoviruses. However, it occasionally occurs in adolescents and adults. It was first characterized in These lesions most often appear on the tonsillar pillars adjacent to the tonsilsbut also on the soft palate, tonsils, uvula, or tongue.

Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis ANUG; colloquially known as trench mouth is a common, non-contagious infection of the gums with sudden onset. The main features are painful, bleeding gums, and ulceration of inter-dental papillae the sections of gum between adjacent teeth. This disease, along with necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis NP or NUP is classified as a necrotizing periodontal disease, one of the seven general types of periodontitis.

Enamel hypocalcification

The often severe gingival pain that characterizes ANUG distinguishes it from the more common chronic periodontitis which is rarely painful. ANUG is the acute presentation of necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis NUGwhich is the usual course the disease takes.

The causative organisms are mostly anaerobic bacteria, particularly Fusobacteria and spirochete species. Predisposing factors include poor oral hygiene, smoking, malnutrition, psychological stress and immunosuppression sub-op Sialolithiasis also termed salivary calculi,[1] or salivary stones ,[1] is a condition where a calcified mass or sialolith forms within a salivary gland, usually in the duct of the hypcalcification gland also termed “Wharton’s duct”.

Less commonly the parotid gland or rarely the sublingual gland or a minor salivary gland may develop salivary stones. The usual symptoms are pain and swelling of the affected salivary gland, both of which get worse when salivary flow is stimulated, e.

Dental fluorosis – Wikipedia

This is often termed “mealtime syndrome”. Sialolithiasis may also develop because of the presence of existing chronic enaeml of the glands, dehydration e. The condition is usually managed by removing the stone, and several different techniques Trismus, also called lockjaw, is reduced opening of the jaws limited jaw range of motion. It may be caused by spasm of the muscles of mastication or a variety of other causes. This interference, specifically with the hypoaclcification ability to swallow properly, results in an increased risk of aspiration.

In some instances, trismus presents with altered facial appearance. The condition may be distressing and painful for the patient. Examination and treatments requiring access to the oral cavity can be limited, or in some cases impossible, due to the nature of the condition itself. Definition Trismus is defined as painful restriction in opening the mouth due to a muscle spasm,[3] however it can also refer to limited mouth opening of any cause.