The eThekwini Declaration continues the trend of successively widening and deepening cooperation between the BRICS. The 5th BRICS. The Second African Conference on Sanitation and Hygiene—AfricaSan+5—was heldin Durban, South Africa from February 18–21, , with. 5th BRICS Summit – eThekwini Declaration and Action Plan. 1. We, the leaders of the Federative Republic of Brazil, the Russian Federation, the.

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Our discussions reflected our growing intra-BRICS solidarity as well as our shared goal to contribute positively to global peace, stability, development and cooperation. We also considered our role in the international system as based on an inclusive approach of shared solidarity and cooperation towards all nations and peoples.

We met at a time which requires that we consider issues of mutual interest and systemic importance in order to share concerns and to develop lasting solutions.

We aim at progressively developing BRICS into a full-fledged mechanism of current and long-term coordination on a wide range of key issues of the world economy and politics. The prevailing global governance architecture is regulated by institutions which were conceived in circumstances when the international landscape in declagation its aspects was characterised by very different challenges and opportunities. As the global economy declwration being reshaped, weare committed to exploring new models and approaches towards etheekwini equitable development and etheowini global growth by emphasising complementarities and building on our respective economic strengths.

We will seek to stimulate infrastructure investment on the basis of mutual benefit to support industrial development, job-creation, skills development, food and nutrition security and poverty eradication and sustainable development in Africa.

The eThekwini Declaration: An analysis | Post Western World

We therefore, reaffirm our support for sustainable infrastructure development in Africa. We note policy actions in Europe, the US and Japan aimed at reducing tail-risks in the world economy. Some of these actions produce negative spillover effects on other economies of the world. Significant risks remain and the performance of the global economy still falls behind our expectations.

As a result, uncertainty about strength and durability of the recovery and the direction of policy in some major economies remains high.

In some key countries unemployment stays unusually elevated, while high levels of private and public indebtedness inhibit growth. In such circumstances, we reaffirm our strong commitment to support growth and foster financial stability.

We also underscore the need for appropriate action to be taken by advanced economies in order to rebuild confidence, foster growth and secure a strong recovery. Central Banks in advanced economies have responded with unconventional monetary policy actions which have increased global liquidity. While ethewkini may be consistent with domestic monetary policy mandates, major Central Banks should avoid the unintended consequences of these actions in the form of increased volatility of capital flows, currencies and commodity prices, which may have negative growth effects on other economies, in particular developing countries.

We welcome the core objectives of the Ethekdini Presidency in the G20 inin particular the efforts to increased financing for investment and ensure public debt sustainability aimed at ensuring strong, sustainable, inclusive and balanced growth and job ethekwuni around the world. We will also continue to prioritise the G20 development agenda as a vital element of erhekwini economic stability and long-term sustainable growth and job creation.

Developing countries face challenges of infrastructure development due to insufficient long-term financing and foreign direct investment, especially investment in capital stock. This constrains global aggregate decparation. BRICS cooperation towards more productive use of global financial resources can make a positive contribution to addressing this problem.

In March we directed our Finance Ministers to examine the feasibility and viability of setting up a New Development Bank for mobilising resources for infrastructure and sustainable development projects in BRICS and dec,aration emerging economies and developing countries, to supplement ehtekwini existing efforts of multilateral and regional financial institutions for global growth and development.

Following the report from our Finance Ministers, we are satisfied that the establishment of a New Development Bank is feasible and viable. We have agreed to establish the New Development Bank. The initial contribution to the Bank should be substantial and sufficient for the Bank to be effective in financing infrastructure.

They have concluded that the establishment of a self-managed contingent reserve arrangement would have a positive precautionary effect, help BRICS countries forestall declaratiin liquidity pressures, provide mutual support and further strengthen financial stability. It would also contribute to strengthening the global financial safety net and complement existing international arrangements as an additional line of defence. We direct our Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors to continue working towards its establishment.

We are grateful to our Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors for the work undertaken on the New Development Bank and the Contingent Reserve Arrangement and direct them to negotiate and conclude the agreements which will establish declaratioon.

We will review progress made in these two initiatives at our next meeting in September We call for the reform of International Financial Institutions to make them more representative and to reflect the growing weight of BRICS and other developing countries.

We remain concerned with the slow pace of the reform of the IMF. We urge all members to take all necessary steps to achieve an agreement on declarxtion quota formula and complete the next general quota review by January All options should be dsclaration, with an open mind, to achieve this. We support the reform and improvement of the international monetary system, with a broad-based international reserve currency system providing stability and certainty.


We support the IMF decladation make its surveillance framework more integrated and even-handed. The leadership selection of IFIs should be through an open, transparent and merit-based process and declaeation open to candidates from the emerging market economies and developing countries. We emphasise the importance of ensuring steady, adequate declaratoon predictable access to long term finance for developing countries from a variety of sources. We reaffirm our support for an open, transparent and rules-based multilateral trading system.

We will continue in our efforts for the successful conclusion of the Doha Round, based on the progress made and dcelaration keeping with its mandate, etgekwini upholding the principles of transparency, inclusiveness and multilateralism. We are committed to ensure that new proposals and approaches to the Doha Round negotiations will reinforce the core principles and the developmental mandate of the Doha Round.

We look forward to significant and meaningful deliverables that are balanced and address key development concerns of the poorest and most vulnerable WTO members, at the ninth Ministerial Conference of the WTO in Bali.

The eThekwini declaration and AfricaSan action plan

We concur that the WTO requires a new leader who demonstrates a commitment to multilateralism and to enhancing the effectiveness of the WTO including through a commitment to support efforts that will lead to an expeditious conclusion of the DDA. We consider that the next Director-General of the WTO should be a representative of a developing country. We acknowledge the important role that State Owned Companies SOCs play in the economy and declarahion our SOCs to explore ways of cooperation, exchange of information and best practices.

SMEs are major creators of jobs and xeclaration. In this regard, we will explore opportunities for etheekwini in the field of SMEs and recognise decclaration need for promoting dialogue among the respective Ministries and Agencies in charge of ethekwimi theme, particularly with a view to promoting their international exchange and cooperation and fostering innovation, research and development.

We reiterate our strong commitment to the United Nations UN as the foremost multilateral forum entrusted with bringing about hope, peace, order and sustainable development to the world. The UN enjoys universal membership and is at the centre of global governance and multilateralism.

In this regard, we reaffirm the need for a comprehensive reform of the UN, including its Security Council, with a view to making it more representative, effective and efficient, so that it can be more responsive to global challenges.

In this regard, China and Russia reiterate the importance they attach to the status of Brazil, India and South Africa in international affairs and support their aspiration to play a greater role in the UN. We underscore our commitment to work together in the UN to continue our cooperation and strengthen multilateral approaches in international relations based on the rule of law and anchored in the Charter of the United Nations.

We are committed to building a harmonious world of lasting peace and common prosperity and reaffirm that the 21stcentury should be marked by peace, security, development, and cooperation. It is the overarching objective and strong shared desire for peace, security, development and cooperation that brought together BRICS countries.

We welcome the twentieth Anniversary of the World Conference on Human Rights and of the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action and agree to explore cooperation in the field of human rights.

We commend the efforts of the international community and acknowledge the central role of the African Union AU and its Peace and Security Council in conflict resolution in Africa. We express our deep concern with instability stretching from North Africa, in particular the Sahel, and the Gulf of Guinea. We also remain concerned about reports of deterioration in humanitarian conditions in some countries.

We welcome the appointment of the new Chairperson of the AU Commission as an affirmation of the leadership of women. We express our deep concern with the deterioration of the security and humanitarian situation in Syria and condemn the increasing violations of human rights and of international humanitarian law as a result of continued violence.

In view of the deterioration of the humanitarian situation in Syria, we call declararion all parties to allow and facilitate immediate, safe, full and unimpeded access to humanitarian organisations to all in need of assistance.

We urge all parties to ensure the safety of humanitarian workers. We are concerned at the lack of progress in the Middle East Peace Process and call on the international community to assist both Israel and Palestine to work towards a two-state solution with a contiguous and economicallyviable Palestinian state, existing side by side in peace with Israel, within internationally recognized borders, based on those existing on 4 Junewith East Jerusalem as its capital.

We declarwtion deeply concerned about the construction of Israeli settlements in the Occupied Palestinian Territories, which is a violation of international law and harmful to the peace process.

In edclaration the primary responsibility of the UNSC in maintaining international peace and security, we note the importance that the Quartet reports regularly to the Council about its efforts, which should contribute to concrete progress. We believe there is no alternative to a negotiated solution to the Iranian nuclear issue. We are concerned about threats of military action as well as unilateral sanctions.


Afghanistan needs time, development assistance and cooperation, preferential access to world markets, foreign investment and a clear end-state strategy to attain lasting peace and stability.

We extend support to the efforts aimed at combating illicit traffic in opiates originating in Afghanistan within the framework of the Paris Pact.

We support the civilian ethekwibi of the Malian Government and its international community partners in realising the transitional programme leading up to the presidential and legislative elections. We emphasise the importance of political inclusiveness and economic and social development in order for Mali to achieve sustainable peace and stability.

We express concern about the reports of the deterioration in humanitarian conditions in Mali and call upon the international community to continue to cooperate with Mali and its neighbouring countries in order to ensure humanitarian declarztion to civilian population affected by the armed conflict. We are gravely concerned with the deterioration in the current situation in the Central African Republic CAR and deplore the loss of life.

We strongly condemn the abuses and acts of violence against the civilian population and urge all parties to the conflict to immediately cease hostilities and return to negotiations. We call upon all parties to allow safe and unhindered humanitarian access.

We are ready to work with the international community to assist in this endeavour and facilitate progress to a peaceful resolution of the conflict.

Brazil, Russia and China express their sympathy decalration the South Declaratikn and Indian governments for the casualties that their citizens suffered in the CAR. We support its independence, territorial integrity and sovereignty. We support the efforts of the UN, AU and sub-regional organisations to bring about peace, security and stability in the country.

We reiterate our strong condemnation of terrorism in all its forms and declaaration and stress that there can be no justification, whatsoever, for any acts of terrorism. We believe that the UN has a central role in coordinating international action against terrorism within the framework of the UN Charter and in accordance with principles and norms of international law.

In this tehekwini, we support the implementation of the UN General Assembly Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy and are determined to strengthen cooperation in countering this global threat. We also reiterate our call for concluding negotiations as soon as possible in the UN General Assembly on the Comprehensive Ethfkwini on International Terrorism and its adoption by all Member States and agreed to work together towards this objective.

We recognize the critical positive role the Internet plays globally in promoting economic, social and cultural development. We believe that the internationally agreed development goals including the Millennium Development Goals MDGs address the needs of developing countries, many of which continue to face developmental challenges, including widespread poverty and inequality.

Low Income Countries LICs continue to face challenges that threaten the impressive growth performance of recent years. Volatility in food and other commodity prices have made food security an issue as well as constraining their sources of revenue.

Progress in rebuilding macro-economic buffers has been relatively slow, partly due to measures adopted to mitigate the social impact of exogenous shocks. Many LICs are currently in a weaker position to deal with exogenous shocks given the more limited fiscal buffers and the constrained aid envelopes, which will affect their etyekwini to declaartion progress towards achieving the MDGs.

We reiterate that individual countries, especially in Africa and other developing countries of the South, cannot achieve the MDGs on their own and therefore the centrality of Goal 8 on Global Partnerships for Development to achieve the MDGs should remain at the core of the global development discourse for the UN System.

Furthermore, this requires the honouring of all commitments made in the outcome documents of previous major international declaratiin.

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We reiterate our commitment to work together for accelerated progress in attaining the Millennium Development Goals MDGs by the target date ofand we call upon other decoaration of the international community to work towards the same objective. In this regard, we stress that the development agenda beyond should build on the MDG framework, keeping the focus on poverty eradication and human development, while addressing emerging challenges of development taking into consideration individual national circumstances of developing countries.

In this regard the critical issue of the mobilization of means of implementation in assisting developing countries needs to be an overarching goal. We ethekkwini fully committed to a coordinated inter-governmental process for the elaboration of the Declaratjon development agenda. We note the following meetings held in the implementation of the Delhi Action Plan: We are committed to forging a stronger partnership for common development.

To this end, we adopt the eThekwini Action Plan.