Name: Guignardia citricarpa Kiely. Anamorph: Phyllosticta citricarpa (McAlpine) Van der Aa (macroconidial state). Synonyms: Phoma citricarpa McAlpine. Citrus black spot is a fungal disease caused by Guignardia citricarpa. This Ascomycete fungus affects citrus plants throughout subtropical climates, causing a. Guignardia citricarpa Kiely, Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales () [MB#].

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Previous records of Guignardia on citrus in some countries may involve the non-pathogenic species Guignardia mangiferae. The situation in Hong Kong, Swaziland and Nigeria is still unclear. The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available.

When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status.

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Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report. A method for detection of G. The method is sufficiently simple to allow deployment of the test in the field, for example, in the course of import inspections. Often black spot can be identified with considerable certainty if hard spot lesions with pycnidia are present.

However, freckle spot, false melanose and virulent spot can be confused with many other diseases and injuries Kotze, Once a species of Guignardia has been isolated from symptomatic tissue, the species involved must be determined. Identification of species of Guignardia from citrus requires isolation of the slow-growing fungus and comparison of several of the above-listed traits to verify the identity. Proof of pathogenicity requires inoculation of fruit or leaves and an incubation period of weeks or months before symptoms appear Kotze, Thus, detection and identification is currently difficult and time-consuming.

However, species-specific primers from the ITS region and other regions of the genome have been developed Sanders et al. These primers are quite reliable for differentiation of the two species when used with pure cultures of the fungus. If they prove successful for detection and identification of species using colonized plant material they should greatly speed diagnosis of black spot.

Polymerase chain reaction PCR can be used to diagnose G. Nonpathogenic isolates of the citrus black spot fungus, Guignardia citricarpa, identified as a cosmopolitan endophyte of woody plants, G. Preliminary studies on the Dothideales in temperate North America. First report of citrus black spot caused by Phyllosticta citricarpa in Angola.


Plant Disease, 3 Fungicidal control of black spot and melanose on coastal Valencia oranges in New South Wales. Australasian Plant Pathology, 10 3: A note on the typification of Guignardia. Development and validation of a fast PCR-based detection method for pathogenic isolates of the citrus black spot fungus, Guignardia citricarpa. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 5: Crop loss, aetiology, and epidemiology of citrus black spot in Ghana. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 3: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No.

Carvalho MC de, Pests and diseases of citrus fruits and treatments recommended in Sofala and Tete. Gazeta do Agricultor, 26 Studies on black spot of citrus. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases. Letters on the diseases of plants: Gazette New South Wales, 8: First report of Phyllosticta citricarpa causing citrus black spot on Citrus sinensis and C.

Plant Disease, 8 Diagnostic protocols for regulated pests. European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization.

Reclassification of an isolate of Guignardia citricarpa from New Zealand as Guignardia mangiferae by sequence analysis. Plant Pathology, 55 2: Citrus black spot in the Northeast of Entre Rios: Proceedings of the International Society of Citriculture, Journal of Phytopathology, 6: Goes A de, Efeito da combinatpo de fungicidas sistOmicos e protetores no controle da mancha preta dos frutos citricos causada por Guignardia citricarpa.

Goes A de, Feitchtenberger E, OcorrOncia da mancha preta causada por Phyllosticta citricarpa McAlp. Notes on the principal cryptogamic diseases of citrus in several countries of eastern Asia Japan, Formosa, Hong Kong and the Philippines. Universita di Catania, Italy. Notes on the principal fungus diseases of citrus fruits observed in certain Eastern Asian countries Japan, Formosa, Hong Kong and the Philippines.

Tecnica Agricola, 22 6: Storage and market diseases of [citrus] fruit. A strain of Guignardia citricarpa, the citrus black spot pathogen, resistant to benomyl in South Africa. Plant Disease, 69 Leaf infection with citrus black spot and perithecial development in relation to ascospore discharge of Guignardia citricarpa Kiely. Journal of Taiwan Agricultural Research, 21 4: A single application of benomyl controls citrus black spot. Citrus and Sub-tropical Fruit Journal, The black spot disease of citrus and its control in South Africa.

Guignardia citricarpa (citrus black spot)

Proceedings of the International Society of Citriculture, 3: Control measures for black spot of Valencias. Preliminary studies on Guignardia citricarpa n.

Control and epiphytology guignarddia black spot of citrus. Effect of packhouse procedures on the viability of Phyllosticta citricarpa, anamorph of the citrus black spot pathogen.


African Plant Protection, 7 2: Epidemiology and control of citrus black spot in South Africa.

Guignardia citricarpa

Plant Disease, 65 Pathogenicity of different isolates of Guignardia citricarpa Kiely from various sources of Ponkan fruits, Journal citrcarpa Taiwan Agriculture Research Agriculture Research, Effect of climatic factors on the development and discharge of ascospores of the citrus black spot fungus.

Journal of Taiwan Agricultural Research, Fungus diseases of citrus trees in Australia and their treatment. The latent occurence in citrus and other hosts of a Guignardia easily confused with G. Germination and infection of citrus by ascospores of Guignardia citricarpa in relation to control of black spot. Two distinct Guignardia species associated with citrus in South Africa. Australasian Plant Pathology, 42 4: In vitro production of ascospores and pathogenicity of Guignardia citricarpa, causal agent of citrus black spot.

Summa Phytopathologica, 26 3: Storage of satsuma mandarin. Storability of satsuma mandarin influenced by thiophanate-methyl treatment and mechanical injuries. Journal of the Korean Society for Horticultural Science, 34 4: Confirmation of citrus black spot Guignardia citricarpa in Florida – United States. Studies on Sphaeropsidales in guignrdia.

First confirmed report of citrus black spot caused by Guignardia citricarpa on sweet oranges Citrus sinensis in Uganda. Plant Pathology, 58 2: A mancha preta dos frutos um dos fatores limitantes a produtpo citrfcola do estado do Rio de Janeiro.

A mancha preta dos frutos cftricos causada por Phoma citricarpa. The effects of fungicides and fertilization on the control of black spot of citrus Guignardia citricarpa. Proceedings of the International Society of Citriculture, 5: Application of species-specific primers in the South African citrus guignarddia. Diaporthe endophytica and D.

First report of Guignardia citricarpa associated with citrus black spot on sweet orange Citticarpa sinensis in North America.

Plant Disease, 96 8: Sweeter fruit with black spot. High molecular diversity of the fungus Guignardia citricarpa and Guignardia mangiferae and new primers for the diagnosis of the Citrus Black Spot.

Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, 52 5: Description of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria.

Diseases of fruit and foliage.