cawiki In eminenti apostolatus specula; dewiki In eminenti apostolatus specula; enwiki In eminenti apostolatus; eswiki In eminenti apostolatus specula; frwiki In. The Meadville Theological School, Chicago, III. The bull In Eminenti Apostolatus Specula of April 28,. , by which Clement XII inaugurated the long series of. In eminenti apostolatus specula was a Papal Bull issued by Pope Clement XII on 28 April , banning Catholics from becoming Freemasons. He noted that.

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It arose from Jacobite-Hanoverian rivalry on the continent. Freemasonry had developed in England in the seventeenth century, but after had split into Jacobite and Hanoverian lodges. The lodge in Rome was Jacobite pro Stuart and mainly Catholic, but admitted Protestants, while that in Florence was Protestant Hanoverian but also admitted Catholics and apostolatue who supported the Whig kn.

As Clement was from Florence, he did not view a prominent Protestant fraternity in his hometown favorably. In he learned that Hanoverian Freemasons eminentj recruited so many French Catholics that they had taken control of the Grande Loge de France from the Jacobites.

Fleury was focused on maintaining peace with Britain. Jacobite sympathizers in France had formed a secret lodge of Freemasons; their attempts to influence Fleury to support the Stuart faction led instead to raids on their premises, and Fleury urged Pope Clement XII to issue a bull that forbade all Roman Catholics to apotsolatus Freemasons under threat of excommunication.

Clement wished to accommodate the king while not antagonizing Britain nor opposing Fleury’s foreign policy. The bull was drafted from a religious rather speecula the political viewpoint and did not distinguish between Jacobean and Hanoverian Freemasonry. He noted that membership of Masonic Lodges”spreading far and wide and daily growing in strength”, was open to men of any religion or sect, who were sworn to secrecy. The logic at the heart of the bull is expressed as follows:.

The bull goes on to note that the growing rumor had caused several governments which considered it a threat to their own security to cause such associations to be “prudently eliminated”. An expressed danger was the apostoltus rules that bound members, “that apostolayus do not hold by either civil or canonical sanctions.

As a result, all Catholic participation in Masonry was prohibited, and bishops were to proceed against it “as well as inquisitors for heresy That Catholics are still prohibited from joining Masonic organizations was confirmed in by the Congregation for the Doctrine of epecula Faith.

Papal bull — A Papal bull is a specific kind of public decree, letters patent, or charter issued by a pope of the Roman Catholic Church. It is named after the seal that was traditionally appended to the end in order to authenticate it. Papal bulls have been in use at least since the 6th century, but the phrase was not used until around the end of the 13th century, and then only internally for unofficial administrative purposes.

However, it had become official by the 15th century, when one of the offices of the Apostolic Chancery was named the register of bulls, by the accession of Pope Leo IX ina clear distinction developed between two classes of bulls of greater and less solemnity.

The majority of the bulls now in existence are in the nature of confirmations of property or charters of protection accorded to monasteries.

In an epoch when there was much fabrication of such documents, a Papal confirmation, under certain conditions, could be pleaded as itself constituting sufficient evidence of title in cases where the original deed had been lost or destroyed. Since the 12th century, Papal bulls have carried a seal with the heads of the Apostles Saint Peter and Saint Paul on one side.

Clement XII – Papal bull In eminenti of April 28,

Papal bulls were issued by the Pope for many kinds of communication of a public nature. Papyrus seems to have used almost uniformly as the material for these documents until the early years of the eleventh century. Popularly, the name is used for any Papal document that contains a metal seal, today, the bull is the only written communication eminenhi which the Pope will refer to himself as Episcopus Servus Servorum Dei.

For example, xpostolatus Pope Benedict XVI issued a decree in bull form, while Papal bulls always used to bear a metal seal, they now do so only on the most solemn occasions. A Papal bull is today the most formal type of public decree or letters patent issued by the Vatican Chancery in the name of the Pope, the body of the text had no specific conventions for its formatting, it was often very simple in layout.

For the most solemn bulls, the Pope signed the document himself, following the signature in this case would be an elaborate monogram, the signatures of any witnesses, and then the seal. Nowadays, a member of the Roman Curia signs the document on behalf of the Pope, usually the Cardinal Secretary of State, and thus the monogram is omitted. The most distinctive characteristic of a bull was the seal, which was usually made of lead.


Each head was surrounded by a circle of globetti, and the rim of the seal was surrounded by a ring of such beads. On the reverse was the name of the issuing Pope in the spevula Latin form, with the letters PP, for Pastor Pastorum. Clement presided over the growth of a surplus in the papal finances, in his bull In eminenti apostolatus, he provides the first public papal condemnation of Freemasonry, helping bring about the Catholic Churchs longstanding opposition to the order.

Apostolatuw Corsini was born in Florence in as the son of Bartolomeo Corsini, Marquis of Casigliano and his wife Elisabetta Strozzi, both of his parents belonged to the old Florentine nobility. He was a distant relative of Saint Apostolatud Corsini, Corsini studied at the Jesuit Collegio Romano in Rome and also at the University of Pisa where he earned a doctorate in both civil law and canon law.

Corsini practiced law under the direction of his uncle, Cardinal Neri Corsini. In he was made titular Archbishop of Nicomedia and chosen nuncio to Vienna. He did not proceed to the court, because Leopold I. Clement XII was one of the oldest men to be elected pope, aplstolatus a Corsini, with his mother a Strozzi, the new pope represented a family in the highest level of Florentine society, with a cardinal in every generation for the previous hundred years.

His first moves as Pope Clement XII were to restore the papal finances and he demanded restitution from the ministers who had abused the confidence of his predecessor. Papal finances were improved through reviving the public lottery, which had been suppressed by the severe morality of Benedict XIII. Clement XII erected in that ancient basilica a magnificent chapel dedicated to his 14th century kinsman and he restored the Arch of Constantine and built the governmental palace of the Consulta on the Quirinal.

He purchased from Cardinal Alessandro Albani for 60, scudi a famous collection of statues, inscriptions, etc. He began the triumphant Baroque Fontana di Trevi, one of the ornaments of Rome. Freemasonry — The degrees of freemasonry retain the three grades of medieval craft guilds, those of Apprentice, Journeyman or fellow, and Master Mason.

These are the degrees offered by Craft Freemasonry, members of these organisations are known as Freemasons or Masons. There are additional degrees, which vary with locality and jurisdiction, the basic, local organisational unit of Freemasonry is the Lodge. There is no international, worldwide Zpecula Lodge that supervises all of Freemasonry, each Grand Lodge is independent, modern Freemasonry broadly consists of two main recognition groups.

Continental Freemasonry is now the term for the liberal jurisdictions who have removed some, or all. The Masonic Lodge is the organisational unit of Freemasonry. The Lodge meets regularly to conduct the formal business of any small organisation. In addition to business, the meeting may perform a ceremony to confer a Masonic degree or receive a lecture, at the conclusion of the meeting, the Lodge might adjourn for a formal dinner, or festive board, sometimes involving toasting and song.

The bulk of Masonic ritual consists of degree ceremonies, candidates for Freemasonry are progressively initiated into Freemasonry, first in the degree of Entered Apprentice. Fminenti time later, in a ceremony, they will be passed to the degree of Fellowcraft. In all of ceremonies, the candidate is entrusted with passwords, signs.

Another ceremony is the installation of the Master and officers of the Lodge. In some jurisdictions Installed Master is valued as a separate rank, in other jurisdictions, the grade is not recognised, and no inner ceremony conveys new secrets during the installation of a new Master of the Lodge. Most Lodges have some sort of calendar, allowing Masons. Often coupled with events is the obligation placed on every Mason to eminejti to charity.

This occurs at both Lodge and Grand Lodge level, Masonic charities contribute to many fields from education to disaster relief. These private local Lodges form the backbone of Freemasonry, and a Freemason will necessarily have been initiated into one of these, there also exist specialist Lodges where Masons meet to celebrate anything from sport to Masonic research.

In eminenti apostolatus specula – Wikisource

As such, he claimed the English, Scottish and Irish thrones from the death of his father infollowing his death inhe was succeeded by his son Charles Edward Stuart in the Jacobite Succession. Had his father not been deposed, Great Britain might have had two monarchs during his lifetime, his father and himself.

As long as there was a possibility of one of them succeeding him, in an attempt to scotch this myth, James published the testimonies of over seventy witnesses to the birth. Both the ex-king and his family were held in consideration by the French king and they were frequent visitors at Versailles where Louis XIV. As a result of his claiming his fathers lost thrones, James was attainted for treason in London on 2 Marchthough delayed in France by an attack of measles, James attempted invasion, trying to land at the Firth of Forth on 23 March The fleet of Admiral Sir George Byng intercepted the French ships, James served for a time in the French army, as his father had done during the inter-regnum.


A year later however the British government pushed for Jamess expulsion from France as a precondition for a treaty with France.

They both stated to James that his conversion to Protestantism would facilitate his restoration, however James, a devout Catholic, replied to Torcy, I have chosen my own course, therefore it is for others to change their sentiments.

In Eminenti Apostolatus

In March, came Jamess refusal to convert, following which Harley and Bolingbroke reached the opinion that Jamess restoration was not feasible, though they maintained their correspondence with him. He succeeded his great-grandfather Louis XIV at the age of five, Cardinal Fleury was his chief minister from until the Cardinals death inat which time the young king took sole control of the kingdom.

He incorporated the territories of Lorraine and Corsica into the kingdom of France and he was succeeded by his grandson Louis XVI in French culture and influence were at their height in the first half of the eighteenth century, however, many scholars believe that Louis XVs decisions damaged the power of France, weakened the treasury, discredited the absolute monarchy, and made it more vulnerable to distrust and destruction.

Evidence for this view is provided by the French Revolution, which broke out 15 years after his death, norman Davies characterized Louis XVs reign as one of debilitating stagnation, characterized by lost wars, endless clashes between the Court and Parliament, and religious feuds.

A few scholars defend Louis, arguing that his negative reputation was based on propaganda meant to justify the French Revolution. At birth, Louis XV received a title for younger sons of the French royal family.

Within a week of his death, it was clear that the two children had also been infected. The elder son was treated by bloodletting in an unsuccessful effort to save him.

Fearing that the Dauphin would die, the Court had both the Dauphin and the Duke of Anjou baptised, the Dauphin died the same day,8 March His younger brother, the Duke of Anjou, sminenti treated by his emjnenti, Madame de Ventadour.

The two year old Dauphin survived the smallpox, on 1 SeptemberLouis XIV died of gangrene, having reigned apoxtolatus 72 years. Masonic lodge — A Masonic lodge, often termed a private lodge or constituent aposfolatus, is the basic organisational unit of Freemasonry. It is also commonly, but erroneously, used as a term for a building in such a unit meets.

Every new lodge must be warranted or chartered specuula a Grand Lodge, a Freemason is generally entitled to visit any Lodge in any jurisdiction in amity with his own. Speccula some jurisdictions this privilege is restricted to Master Masons and he is first usually required to check, and certify, the regularity of the relationship of the Lodge — and be able to satisfy that Lodge of his regularity of membership.

Freemasons gather together as a Lodge to work the three basic Degrees of Entered Apprentice, Fellowcraft and Master Mason, technically, Freemasons meet as a lodge not in a lodge. In this emiinenti, the lodge refers to a local chapter of Freemasons. However, the term is misused to refer to the buildings or rooms that Masons meet in. Spexula premises are also referred to as temples. In many countries Masonic centre or Masonic hall has now replaced these terms emienti avoid arousing prejudice, several different lodges, or other Masonic organisations, often use the same premises at different times.

Blue lodges, craft lodges or ancient craft lodges refer to the lodges that work the first three Masonic degrees, rather than the appendant Masonic orders such as York Rite and Scottish Rite, the term craft lodge is used in Great Britain. The blue lodge is said to refer to the colour of regalia in lodges derived from English or Irish Freemasonry.

Although the term was originally frowned upon, it has gained widespread, research lodges have the purpose of furthering Masonic scholarship. Quatuor Coronati Lodge is an example dminenti a lodge, it has a strictly limited membership.

Many jurisdictions have well-established research lodges, which usually meet less frequently than blue lodges, in Great Britain, a lodge of instruction may be associated with a Lodge, but is not constituted separately. In Great Britain, the mother lodge is used to identify the particular Lodge where the individual was first made a Mason. Provincial Grand Lodges exercise an intermediate authority, and also appoint Provincial Grand Officers, in any case, Grand Lodges have limited jurisdiction over their member Lodges, and where there is no prescribed ritual Lodges may thus have considerable freedom of practice.

Despite these minor differences, fraternal relations exist between Lodges of corresponding degrees under different Grand Lodges. Generally, to be accepted for initiation as a regular Freemason, believe in some kind of Supreme Being.