KEPMENKES 829 TAHUN 1999 PDF

Kepmenkes Nomor Tahun – PERSYARATAN KESEHATAN PERUMAHAN – Free download as PDF File .pdf) or read online for free. Smart People Should Build Things: How to Restore Our Culture of Achievement, Build a Path for Entrepreneurs, and Create New Jobs in America ยท The Hard. Kepmenkes RI No. /Menkes/SK/VII/ tentang Persyaratan Kesehatan Perumahan. 4 Tahun tentang Perumahan dan Pemukiman. Jakarta.

Author: Zolozuru Kazikora
Country: Niger
Language: English (Spanish)
Genre: Politics
Published (Last): 12 April 2008
Pages: 41
PDF File Size: 13.26 Mb
ePub File Size: 6.67 Mb
ISBN: 534-9-44301-783-8
Downloads: 31213
Price: Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]
Uploader: Akinora

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited. kepmemkes

Students living in unhealthy housing environments experience the health impacts of indoor air pollution. The objective of our study was to analyze the impacts of indoor air pollution on students in Surabaya. Case-control was used to design the study. The case group consisted of students with a history of ARI as determined by clinical test, while the control group consisted of students with no ARI as determined by clinical test.

Data collection was performed using structured interviews. The most impactful factor for ARI is room kepmdnkes. The recommendation is to manage indoor pollutants to reduce the risk of ARI on a productive age group such as students.

It is usually infectious, which can cause a spectrum of illnesses ranging from asymptomatic disease or mild infection to severe illness and death, depending on the pathogen, environmental factors, and host factors.

Hubungan Kepadatan Hunian dan Kualitas Fisik Rumah Desa Penda Asam Barito Selatan

ARI is defined as an acute respiratory disease caused by an infectious agent transmitted by humans. The onset of symptoms is usually rapid, i.

Possible symptoms include fever, cough, often sore throat, coryza runny noseshortness of breath, wheezing, and difficulty in breathing Jason DT et al. ARI has always been ranked as the most common disease in Indonesia.

Based on the results of Riskesdas inthe prevalence of ARI was found to be The population with the highest occurrence of ARI In there werecases of ARI in children under five There are several factors that may cause respiratory disease. Risk factors related to ARI include home construction, home density, and population density.

Home environmental risk factors that influence the incidence of ARI include residential density, ventilation, temperature, and humidity. The aim of our study is to investigate the effects of indoor air pollution on students at Surabaya. The study used case control design with an Airlangga University student population at Campus C in Mulyorejo.

  IN5408 DIODE DATASHEET PDF

It used a case-control study design. The study population of students lived in boarding houses or rented houses for approximately two years.

The case kepmenkez consisted of 40 students aged years who had been clinically determined to be hahun by ARI. The control group consisted of 80 students without ARI, as determined by clinical test. Data was collected using a questionnaire. Temperature was measured using a room thermometer, and air humidity was measured by using a hygrometer. Variables examined included the home environment including the construction of the house, i.

Data analysis included univariate analysis frequency distribution and proportion of variablesbivariate analysis identification of candidate multivariate model variablesand multivariate analysis to determine the relationships of independent variables with the dependent variable incidence of ARI. There were uncomfortable room temperature The multivariate analysis in this research used logistic regression to relate several independent variables together with the dependent variable.

After screening for statistical significance, in which variables were removed one by one to determine their significance, six variables were found that have a significant relationship with the occurrence of ARI: ARI poses a greater risk when people live in inappropriate bedroom densities [ 37 ].

More kepmenkew in a room leads to higher concentrations of microorganisms because kepmfnkes person is carrying microorganisms, which come from the nose, throat, mouth, and skin. As a result, the risk of disease spreading in the room will be higher.

Arjuna Marza – Google+

The risk of ARI transmission during sleep is also higher with closer contact between the occupants. If the number of occupants of the room is not proportional to the area of the room, the volume of clean air will be reduced and carbon monoxide will rapidly increase as the result of expiration process [ 8 ] Hecht SS House lepmenkes is significantly associated with the incidence of ARI.

Inappropriate room humidity may make a room seem wet and facilitate the transmission of the disease.

Ventilation, temperature, and humidity are significantly associated with the incidence of ARI and are also closely related to air circulation in the house. If the air circulation does not conform to regulations, the air will be stuffy, smelly, and raise pathogenic bacteria and other pollutants that can harm health. Ventilation plays an important role because it will provide a proper speed of air flow. Inappropriate ventilation is dangerous to health and may stimulate indoor air contamination by microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, and various chemicals [ 67 ].

  APENDICECTOMIA ABIERTA TECNICA QUIRURGICA PDF

House sanitation is closely associated with morbidity of infectious diseases, especially respiratory infection. The housing environment is very influential on the incidence and spread of ARI. The relationship between home sanitation and health conditions is well-known.

In communities with poor sanitation homes, the prevalence of infectious diseases including ARI will be high. This is caused by house construction e. A small house window causes improper air exchange, and smoke from the kitchen or anti-mosquito insecticide fumes may collect in a room in the house. Infants and children are often sensitive to air pollution inside the home, but it can also occur in people of childbearing age, such as college students between the ages of 17 to 22 years.

At that age, their immune systems are already complete. High moisture also facilitates the occurrence of air pollution inside the home [ 6 ].

Other disorders, such as reduced oxygen levels and increased carbon monoxide levels. The length of stay of the respondents affected the incidence of ARI. The use of anti-mosquito spray in the room may create or add more indoor pollutants.

Respondents’ smoking habits increase the risk of ARI by 42 times compared to the risk of non-smokers. Living in a house with brick or concrete block wall construction, with or without plastering, showed no significant relationship to ARI risk. Likewise, the ceilings or roofs of both groups showed no significant difference. Environmental factors of housing affect the incidence of ARI.

These factors include residential density of living rooms or bedrooms, ventilation, room temperature, humidity, length of stay in the house, use mosquito repellent, and smoking habits. Narain Pneumonia in South-East Asia region: Public health perspectiveIndian Journal of Medical Researchs2. Kementrian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. Douwes Respiratory and allergic health effects of dampness, mold, and dampness-related agents: Cox-Ganser Mold exposure and respiratory health in damp indoor environmentsFrontiers in Bioscience – Elites2.

Yudhastuti Housing sanitation and acute respiratory tract infection among undergraduate students in Indonesia. Oxford University Press; Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. Keputusan menteri kesehatan no. Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia; Aldio Yudha Trisandy 2.