Abstract. One hundred and fifty-eight soil samples were collected from various areas of four districts of Kerala and screened for prevalence of keratinophilic fungi. This chapter discusses the occurrence of keratinophilic fungi in different habitats Deshmukh and Verekar b), Kerala (Deshmukh b), the Andamans. Incidence of keratinophilic fungi from selected soils of Kerala state (India). Deshmukh SK(1). Author information: (1)Dept. of Natural Products, Quest Institute of.
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensekeratinpohilic permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. One hundred and fifty samples were collected from eleven districts of Vidarbha region of Maharashtra state and screened for the presence of keratinophilic fungi using hair baiting technique for isolation.
Seventy-one isolates were recovered and identified. The cultures were identified using macro- and micromorphological features. Thirteen species of eight genera were isolated, namely, Auxarthron conjugatum 2. This study indicates that the soils of Vidarbha region of Maharashtra may be significant reservoirs of certain keratinophilic fungi.
Keratinophilic fungi are an ecologically important group of fungi that decompose one of the most abundant and highly stable animal proteins on earth-keratin which they utilize as a nutrient substrate for growth.
Some of these fungi are well-known dermatophytes and are known to cause superficial cutaneous infections dermatophytoses of keratinized tissues skin, hair, and nails of humans and animals. Mycotic infection is reported throughout the world, and it is extremely contagious [ 2 ]. The occurrence of dermatophytes in soil was reported for the first time by Vanbreuseghem [ 3 ] using the hair bait technique. Since then studies on the isolation of keratinophilic fungi from soil have been investigated throughout the world [ 4 — 7 ].
Tropical climate and topology of Vidarbha region of Maharashtra make this region a potentially interesting area to study the distribution of these fungi. We therefore undertook this study and report the results obtained.
The samples were collected from forest land, cultivated land, road side, public gardens, poultry farm, cattle farm, garbage, and lake side. For isolation, hair bait technique of Vanbreuseghem [ 3 ] was used. Sterile Petri dishes were half filled with the soil samples and moistened with water and baited with keratin by burying sterile human hairs in the soil. Human hairs from a years-old male were used.
Cultures were incubated at room temperature for five to ten days following which the cultures were microscopically checked for purity and subcultured to get pure cultures. These fungi were identified based on the various available monographs using macro- and micromorphological features of these cultures [ 8 — 12 ]. Negative controls were used in each set of reactions. The final products were analyzed by electrophoresis on 1. For phylogenetic tree construction, multiple sequences were obtained from GenBank and the alignments were performed using MEGA6 [ 16 ].
The results of the isolations are presented in Table 2. They reveal that out of samples only 71 yielded keratinophilic fungi that can be categorized in thirteen species of eight genera, namely, Auxarthron conjugatum 2. All thirteen strains yielded unique PCR amplification. The sequences of the ITS Chrysosporium state of Ctenomyces serratus and Trichophyton mentagrophytes were the smallest and the largest, respectively.
There was considerable difference in the sequence data of the thirteen strains analyzed. The Phylogenetic tree indicates different clusters for each isolate showing their sequence variation. Its high percentage of distribution clearly indicates that it is well adapted to warmer condition of India [ 21 ].
Microsporum gypseum complex was found next to C. We also encountered Arthroderma sp. However, mating experiments were not conducted to confirm its specific identity. It was reported from Indian soils by Dey and Kakoti [ 22 ]. It was further isolated from various parts of India [ 2123 — 27 ].
Chrysosporium tropicum was next to M. It is a cosmopolitan species and has been reported from various parts of India [ 17182728 ].
The other species of Chrysosporium isolated were Chrysosporium evolceanui 2. Chrysosporium evolceanui was reported from Indian soils as Trichophyton evolceanui by Randhawa and Sandhu [ 17 ]; then Garg [ 21 ] placed it in the genus Chrysosporium as C. It is reported from Indian soils [ 262930 ]. Various workers have isolated Chrysosporium zonatum from Indian soil [ 3132 ]. Chrysosporium state of Ctenomyces serratus was recorded in 3. Other species of keratinophilic fungi isolated were Gymnascella dankaliensis 1.
Gymnascella hyalinospora was reported from Indian soils by Singh and Kushwaha [ 32 ] and Deshmukh [ 34 ]. Gymnoascoideus petalosporus was previously recorded from Chilka Lake soil [ 35 ], soils from Vedanthangal Water Bird Sanctuary [ 20 ], and soils of Orissa [ 33 ]. Auxarthron conjugatum is reported from Indian soils by Deshmukh and Verekar [ 20 ], Jain and Agrawal [ 36 ], and Deshmukh and Agrawal [ 37 ].
Anamorphic state of Uncinocarpus queenslandicus i. The ekrala species of dermatophytes recovered were Trichophyton mentagrophytes 2. fngi
Trichophyton mentagrophytes has been reported from Indian soils [ 263440 — 42 ] and is known to cause diseases in man and animals [ 4344 ]. The prevalence of these fungi in the soils of region of Vidarbha funggi of importance for their pathogenic potential and has been confirmed in several investigations in different parts of the world. For example, Chrysosporium zonatum was reported to cause disseminated infection in a patient with chronic granulomatous disease [ 48 ].
Both patients presented pulmonary cavity sites [ 49 ]. Chrysosporium tropicum was reported from comb lesion in two different breeds of chicken in India [ 50 ]. There are reports of disseminated infections due to C.
Gymnascella dankaliensis was reported from superficial infections in human beings [ 52 ] and Iwen et al. Thus, these fungi may be regarded as opportunistic pathogens. There are some reports of occurrence kerqtinophilic keratinophilic fungi from various parts of Maharashtra [ 40475556 ], but to best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive report on incidence of keratinophilic fungi from Vidarbha region. These findings are in agreement with the findings of previous work on keratinophilic fungi.
It appears from this study that a rich variety of keratinophilic fungal flora exists in Vidarbha region of Maharashtra which may be attributed to the climatic and environmental conditions such as the soil type, vegetation, fauna, and human habitations.
Our findings confirm the presence of keratinophilic and related dermatophytes in the soils of Vidarbha region. These areas potentially have a high risk for causing cutaneous fungal infections in humans and animals and could be considered as a source of these infections. The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper. Abstract One hundred and fifty samples were collected keratinophilkc eleven districts of Vidarbha region of Maharashtra state and screened for the presence of keratinophilic keraka using hair baiting technique for isolation.
Introduction Keratinophilic fungi are an ecologically important group of fungi that decompose one of the most abundant and highly stable animal proteins on earth-keratin which they utilize as a nutrient substrate for growth.
Journal of Mycology
Materials keratjnophilic Methods 2. Distribution of soil samples examined of Vidarbha region of Maharashtra India. Sites of collection of soil samples in Vidarbha region of Maharashtra. Distribution of keratinophilic fungi in different types of soils of Vidarbha region of Maharashtra. Phylogenetic tree based on ITS Numbers at the respective nodes are percentage of bootstrap replicates.
Bar indicates genetic distance due to sequence variation.
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Incidence of keratinophilic fungi from selected soils of Kerala state (India).
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