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View my complete profile. His studies in Islamic traditional education which started in his hometown and then pursued further at Mecca at the Sacred City, with a brief visit to Cairo, making him a revered intellectualand spiritual figure of the country, with such desire for positive changes among his people, led him to pursue an intensive life of Islamic educational and social reforms, with a number of institutions bearing the stamp of either his direct or indirect influence.

Hence, his ability to gain the respect and following among the traditional scholars apart from him being accepted by those among the kkitab elite in the state. The writer has to rely on the writers who had already made a study on him, apart from his perusal of some original sources; the interpretations are his own, guided by the facts observed.

His father Ahmad was a farmer, a simple villager, nevertheless was a man devoted Islamic values. His mother, Fatimah, was a lady with fine character and strong believer of the values and practice of the faith.

He was born about three years after the building of the Muhammadi Mosque of Kota Bharu, which later was to become a very significant center of Islamic learning, making it famous in South-east Asia.

This family makrufat living with little means influenced the future Islamic scholar to be man of asceticism and independent ways.

When he was five years old his father passed away and he makrifwt taken care of by his maternal grandfather. His grandfather was a man of sufficient learning and piety to be his guide, living with the philosophy of life seeking for the pleasure of his Lord in whatever he does. There were a number of religious scholars teaching at the mosque with several hundred students from every corner of the state.

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Mecca is not only the center for the pilgrimage, the rite constituting the fifth pillar of the religion, but it also is a center for Islamic education. There they gained profiency in Arabic and the Islamic religious sciences of tafsir, traditions of the Prophet, fiqh or the Islamic Sacred Law, usul al-din or Islamic Theology and mysticism.

Scholars from the Malay World flocked to these centers, to deepen their studies in the Islamic sciences and Arabic. After their return to the Malay World, they devoted themselves to the dissemination of Islam and its practices.

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Hence he undertook his voyage to Mecca knealiat the young age of about eighteen, and after a difficult journey of six months by sailing ship he set foot on the sacred soil of the Holy City of Mecca makrifay perform the pilgrimage and further his studies. He was in very difficult circumstances in the makirfat of strangers, and he managed to solve some of his difficulties by cooking for his friends and acquaintances in their picnics in the valleys outside the Holy City.

He was ready to follow the instructions in his studies in the Holy City. However, unfortunately because he was in difficult circumstances, he could only follow his lessons by listening, without being able to benefit from reading the texts. As a result, so the story goes, he has to go to the bookshops and ask the permission of the owners to see the relevant books with particular care and attention without buying them.

Ilmu Makrifat Tok Kenali

He was also fortunate because he was able to borrow the texts from his teachers. Possibly because of his patience with his difficult circumstances and poverty he was able to advance very well in his studies due to his diligence and focus. It appears that he frequently read and scrutinized manuscripts written by Muslim scholars and thinkers which were in circulation in the Muslim World at that time. He liked to examine the materials taught to him and ask questions about them, before being repeated by his teachers, in this manner he made more impressions of the materials of his learning on his mind and heart, and in this way also he was able to make comparisons mskrifat the materials learnt with his own experience and understanding.

Possibly wide reading and positive critical attitude in his studies made him advance very well in his studies. Teachers in the Sacred Mosque Masjid al-Haram ; Among his teachers frequently mentioned, in the Masjid al-Haram were — among the most outstanding: Tuan Guru Wan Ahmad, his full name being: Ahmad bin Muhammad Zain bin Mustafa al-Fatani.

The only brief record available concerning this short visit shows that it is of general interest about sight seeing and at the same time having importance from the point of view of learning and the development of education in Al-Azhar and other institutions of like nature in Egypt. After a short time of meeting with men of learning in Cairo, discussing matters about religion and Islamic education with them, the delegation returned to Mecca.


In connection with this visit it can be understood that apart from visiting the ulama of al-Azhar in Cairo, the delegation also met Shaikh Yusuf al-Nabhani in Beirut; this is mentioned by Haji Wan Mohd Shaghir a few times.

At that time Kelantan was under the rule of Sultan Muhammad IV who was entitled the Sultan of Kelantan or Raja Kelantan; there were consultations held between the leaders of the Kelantan Government and the representatives of the Siamese Government on the one hand and the representatives of the Kitag on the other.

The aim was to reach an agreement to place Kelantan under the British rule. In the following year Kelantan was under the rule of the British. The transfer of Kelantan from the Siamese to the British rule is stated in the treaty and then the treaty is followed by a letter from the High Commissioner, Sir John Anderson informing Raja Senik of Kelantan that: His Educational and Religious Activities in Kelantan: In fact their friendship started already maakrifat they studied in their childhood days under Ence Ismail, the father of Nik Mahmud; and in Mecca they were together under the guidance of Shaikh Ahmad al-Fatani.

In fact he began to deliver his lessons at his own house at Kampong Paya, which was then occupied by his mother, Hajjah Fatimah. Before long students began makrfiat come to him from the surrounding villages and also from further off places; they came and set up their own small pondoks around kenapi in the village so that they could study under him and be with him. By the first Pondok Kenali was flourishing extremely well under his able leadership, and from there his fame began to spread far and wide.

Later he began to teach once a week at the Muhammadi Mosque in Kota Bharu. At that time the Muhammadi Mosque was not only the center of learning for Kelantan alone, rather it was a center of learning for the region as a whole.

His fame as a revered teacher grew and never leave him; at its highest point, the community in the pondok grew up to a number of no less than three hundred students from all over the Penunsula, Indonesia, especially SumateraPatani and Cambodia.

In the teaching of Arabic he has jitab considerable role in developing its teaching, and in other subjects he has made his contributions befitting the society which was his milieu. Among the texts read by him are: Kitag of the characteristics of his way of instructions was that he did not use text- books. Though students might have texts in front of them, he never did.

Besides indicating his amazing memory, this reflected the severe training he had undergone in Mecca during his difficult years in poverty in the Sacred City of Mecca.

Then there was at that time the monthly magazine Al-Hedayah which was first published in Julywhose chief editor was Ahmad bin Ismail; this literary magazine benefited from his advice and views which was often sought after by the chief editor. For furthering its activities and goals the premises for the organization was established at the Jalan Tengku Putera Semerak in the center of Kota Bharu.

His Influence in Islamic Education: Possibly this can be attributed to the many important positions and posts held by him in the state and the dedication and sincerity shown by him in his efforts at promoting Islamic education and learning and the growth of culture in the state in particular and in Malaya in general. The highest point of his influence and fame manifested itself towards the end of the reign of Sultan Muhammad IV and in the early stage of the reign of Sultan Ismail ; both rulers of Kelantan were responsible for a lot of development for the state, especially in matters pertaining to the religious sphere.

He devised a system of graduated instruction in Arabic grammar and syntax, which helped his students enormously in mastering the language. And he liked to quote them in his lessons and at certain suitable occasions. Establishment and Growth of Arabic and Religious Schools: Among the institutions established by his students were as follows: The present writer can still remember when he was young he could hear people calling him Haji Muhammad Bukhari.

The name Bukhari seems to originate from his having memorized the text of al-Bukhari.

After his return to Kelantan he established his pondok at Pauh, Panji, not very far from Kota Bharu, and then the pondok was established at Jambu, a bit nearer to Kota Bharu. His pondok was so successful that he managed to obtain the help of a number of assistant teachers to aid him. Later, because of the Japanese occupation, his pondok dwindled, and finally it was closed.

It is reported that he was so proficient in fiqh and other disciplines that the state mufti Ahmad Mahir sought his aid in making difficult decisions in matters of law. Apart from teaching he was also involved in writing. He then goes on to state: On the other hand he attempted to convey his ideas in a simple way full of wisdom. This problem began to emerge when the British introduced the secular education which was market-oriented in nature.


This means that from the point of view of the schooling-system, he followed the Western model, however from the point of view of the contents, it is Islam orientated. This can be done by focusing on searching for knowledge in a holistic manner apart from having confidence in one self and possessing clear objective in all matters.

However the change must take place in a balanced manner keeping in view the welfare of this world and the hereafter. And for those who neglect the welfare of this world only by concentrating on matters relating to the hereafter, he explained that such an attitude is not correct, because wealth is also important for fulfilling the needs of men.

Similarly for those who confine themselves to matters of worldly life only, they are regarded as those who are the losers because knowledge, wealth and actions including religious actions should be balanced. Even though in his views he is seen so progressive, in his daily life he carried on the tradition of the Sufis living in a very simple manner, without showing any trace of ostentation and self-importance.

Among those who are esteemed in the society are as follows: Among his other kkitab are: Contains materials about kwnali history of the Prophet. There are two other works not found by the writer of his short biography. Shaikh Muhammad Idris al-Marbawi, 45 an Islamic scholar who has made very important contributions in the development of Islamic education and literary history.

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He is famed for the popular Arabic —Malay Dictionary, called Qamus al-Marbawi, published in Cairo, inwith several lenali, and also published in Malaysia, Penang and Singapore. His other work, may be his monumental contribution to hadith literature in Malay is the famed al-Bahr al-Madhi, with exhaustive commentary of the collection of Imam al-Tirmidhi.

It is published in twenty-two volumes, in Jawi, the earliest was published in Cairo. This organization was officially recognized by the state, so much so that a representative of the organization was appointed by the Sultan to be a member of the Committee for drawing up the constitution of the state. Haji Ahmad bin Ismail, the chief editor of al-Hedayah and later the founder and editor of Al-Hikmaha translator and adaptor of a number of works from Arabic.

Apart from writing he was interested in politics and this mkarifat clear from the fact that he was also involved in opposing the Malayan Union in Malaysian political history. The Pengasuh magazine in the issue of 11th December vol. His grave is often visited by many people for its spiritual blessings. May his soul rest in peace. He had four sons, all by the same wife, Puan Rokiah bte Mahmud, who maktifat the daughter of the imam muda or the assistant imam of Kampong Kenali, whom he married not long after his return to Kelantan from Mecca in The eldest was Haji Ahmad b.

Marifat there is Haji Muhammad Salleh b. He had suggested to the state authorities to bring down the Union Jack fluttering in the breeze in one district in Ulu Kelantan. His character bears the stamp of the Sufis of the classical period of Islamic spirituality, the impact of the Prophetic spirituality among its recipients. Considering his attitude in relation to worldly matters, when he was asked the question as to how much should any one acquire worldly things, he replied that it should be as much as necessarymeaning that what is beyond the necessary is not demanded by the religion; this means that he is not supportive of the consumerist culture like the one promoted by the supporters of liberal capitalism of the present day, or life makriaft excessive luxury.

Concerning his simple ways and non-attachment to the world, the chief editor of the magazine Al-Hikmah explains 57 Allahyarham was difficult to be compared with any one – UEM in relation to his asceticism, piety, and self-effacement Ar.

In fact he is an ascetic zahid in all matters. I have mixed with him for fifteen years and intimately was associated with him, drinking from the honey of his wisdom with Allahyarham i. It is indeed illuminating to observe in a man of the twentieth century the classic spiritual quality of asceticism in matters of personal life combined with an amazing degree of activism in educational and intellectual matters, judging from the range of his reading, including magazines, apart from classical Sunni texts and then observing his reforms in the society.

Approachability and Self-Effacing Attitude: This quality is being observed by one of his ex-students in one article in the magazine Saudara, in