glwiki Revolución Cubana; hewiki המהפכה הקובנית; hiwiki क्यूबा की क्रांति; hrwiki Kubanska revolucija; huwiki Kubai forradalom; hywiki Կուբայական. Kubanska revolucija. godine izvršiti samoubistvo usled jedne žestoke rasprave sa vladinim predstavnicima. ova koalicija (sa Batistom i komunistima) nije bila. Kubanska revolucija translation in Slovenian-English dictionary.
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The Cuban Revolution Spanish: The revolution began in July and continued sporadically until the rebels finally ousted Batista on 31 Decemberreplacing his government with a revolutionary socialist state.
The 26th of July Movement later reformed along communist lines, becoming the Communist Party in October The Cuban Revolution had powerful domestic and international repercussions. In particular, it transformed Cuba’s relationship with the United Statesalthough efforts to improve diplomatic relations have gained momentum in recent years.
In the decades following United States’ invasion of Cuba inand formal independence from the U. Fulgencio Batistajubanska former soldier who had served as the elected president of Cuba from tobecame president for the second time inafter seizing power in a military coup and canceling the elections. During his first term as President, Batista ukbanska not been supported by the Communist Party of Cuba but during his second term he became strongly anti-communist.
In the months following the March coup, Fidel Castrothen a young lawyer and activist, petitioned for the overthrow of Batista, whom he accused of corruption and tyranny.
However, Castro’s constitutional arguments were rejected by the Cuban courts. Batista was known as a corrupt leader as he constantly pampered himself with elegant foods and exotic women.
He had around factory and farm workers.
Kubanska revolucija: diplomsko delo – Jasmina Bizjak – Google Books
After an hour of fighting the rebel leader fled to the mountains. Numerous key Movement revolutionaries, including the Castro brothers, were captured shortly afterwards. In a highly political trial, Fidel spoke for nearly four hours in his defense, ending with the words “Condemn me, it does not matter.
History will absolve me. Soon, the Castro brothers joined with other exiles in Mexico to prepare for the overthrow of Batista, receiving training from Alberto Bayoa leader of Republican forces in the Spanish Civil War. The yacht Granma departed from TuxpanVeracruzMexicoon 25 Novembercarrying the Castro brothers and 80 others including Ernesto “Che” Guevara and Camilo Cienfuegoseven though the yacht was only designed to accommodate 12 people with a maximum of The yacht arrived in Cuba on 2 December.
After arriving and exiting the ship, the band of rebels began to make their way into the Sierra Maestra mountains, a range in southeastern Cuba. The dispersed survivors, alone or in small groups, wandered through the mountains, looking for each other. Eventually, the men would link up again — with the help of peasant sympathizers — and would form the core leadership of the guerrilla army. The attack ended in utter failure. The handful of survivors included Dr.
Thereafter, the United States imposed an economic embargo on the Cuban government and recalled its ambassador, weakening the government’s mandate further. Once Batista started making drastic decisions concerning Cuba’s economy, he began to nationalize U. S oil refineries and kkubanska U.
Batista’s government often resorted to brutal methods to keep Cuba’s cities under control. Castro accepted the offer, but he also had an immediate need for guns and kubanskz, so Sturgis became a gunrunner. Sturgis opened a training camp in the Sierra Maestra mountains, where he taught Che Guevara and other 26th of July Movement rebel soldiers guerrilla warfare. In addition, poorly armed irregulars known as escopeteros harassed Batista’s forces in the foothills and ukbanska of Oriente Province.
The escopeteros also provided direct military support to Castro’s main forces by protecting supply lines and by sharing intelligence. In addition to armed resistance, the rebels sought to use propaganda to their advantage. A pirate radio station called Radio Rebelde “Rebel Radio” was set up in Februaryallowing Castro and his revoluclja to broadcast their message nationwide within enemy territory. During this time, Castro’s forces remained quite small in numbers, sometimes fewer than men, while the Cuban army and police tevolucija had a manpower of around 37, An arms embargo — imposed on the Cuban government by the United States on the 14 March — contributed significantly to the weakness of Batista’s forces.
The Cuban air force rapidly deteriorated: Batista finally responded to Castro’s efforts with an attack on the mountains called Operation Veranoknown to the rebels as la Ofensiva. The army sent some 12, soldiers, half of them untrained recruits, into the mountains, along with his own brother Raul.
In a series of small skirmishes, Castro’s determined guerrillas defeated the Cuban army.
However, the tide nearly turned kubahska the 29 Julywhen Batista’s troops almost destroyed Castro’s small army of some men at the Battle of Las Mercedes. With his forces pinned down by superior numbers, Castro asked for, and received, a temporary cease-fire on 1 August.
Over the next seven days, while fruitless negotiations took place, Castro’s forces gradually escaped from the trap. By the 8 August, Castro’s entire army had escaped back into the mountains, and Operation Verano had effectively ended in failure for the Batista government. The enemy soldier in the Cuban example which at present concerns us, is the junior partner of the dictator; he is the man who gets the last crumb left by a long line of profiteers that begins in Wall Street and ends with him.
He is disposed to defend his privileges, but he is disposed to defend them only to the degree that they are important to him. His salary and his pension are worth some suffering and some dangers, but they are never worth his life.
If the price of maintaining them will cost it, he is better off giving them up; that is to say, withdrawing from the face of the guerrilla danger. On 21 Augustafter the defeat of Batista’s OfensivaCastro’s forces began their own offensive. Descending from the mountains with new weapons captured during the Ofensiva and smuggled in by plane, Castro’s forces won a series of initial victories. Castro’s major victory at Guisaand the successful capture of several towns including Maffo, Contramaestre, and Central Oriente, brought the Cauto plains under his control.
Batista’s forces ambushed and destroyed Jaime Vega’s column, but the surviving two columns reached the central provinces, where they joined forces with several other resistance groups not under the command of Castro. When Che Guevara’s column passed through the province of Las Villasand specifically through the Escambray Mountains — where the anticommunist Revolutionary Directorate forces who became known as the 13 March Movement had been fighting Batista’s army for many months — friction developed between the two groups of rebels.
Nonetheless, the combined rebel army continued the offensive, and Cienfuegos won a key victory in the Battle of Yaguajay on 30 Decemberearning him the nickname “The Hero of Yaguajay”.
On 31 Decemberthe Battle of Santa Clara took place in a scene of great confusion. News of these defeats caused Batista to panic. He fled Cuba by air for the Dominican Republic just hours later on 1 January Comandante William Alexander Morgan, leading RD revolucjia forces, continued fighting as Batista departed, and had captured the city of Cienfuegos by 2 January.
Castro learned of Batista’s flight revolycija the morning and immediately started negotiations to take over Santiago de Cuba. On the 2nd of January, the military commander in the city, Colonel Rubido, ordered his soldiers not to fight, and Castro’s forces took over the city. The forces of Guevara and Cienfuegos entered Havana at about the same time.
They had met no opposition on their journey from Santa Clara to Cuba’s capital. Castro himself arrived in Havana on 8 January after a long victory march. The importance of women’s contributions to the Cuban Revolution is reflected in the very accomplishments that allowed the revolution to be successful, from the participation in the Moncada Barracksto the Mariana Grajales all-women’s platoon that served as Fidel Castro’s personal security detail.
Tete Pueblasecond in command of the Mariana Grajales Platoonhas said:.
Women in Cuba have always been on the front line of the struggle. There were many revoucija comrades who were tortured and murdered. From the beginning there were women in the Revolutionary Armed Forces.
First they were simple soldiers, later sergeants. Those of us in the Mariana Grajales Platoon were the first officers. The ones who ended the war with officers’ ranks stayed in the armed forces.
Before the Mariana Grajales Platoon was established, the revolutionary women of the Sierra Maestra revoludija not organized for combat and primarily helped with cooking, mending clothes, and revolucia to the sick, frequently acting as couriers, as well as teaching guerillas to read revoluckja write. Tete Puebla, founding member and second in command of the Mariana Grajales Platoon, said of Celia Sanchez”When you speak of Celia, you’ve got to speak of Fidel, and vice versa.
Celia’s ideas touched almost everything in the Sierra. Our revolution is endangering all American possessions in Latin America. We are telling these countries to make their own revolution.
Hundreds of Batista-era agents, policemen and soldiers were put on public trial, accused of human rights abuses, war crimesmurderand torture. About of the accused people were convicted of political crimes by revolutionary tribunals and then executed by firing squad ; others received long sentences of imprisonment.
This was part of a large-scale attempt by Fidel Castro to cleanse the security forces of Batista loyalists and potential opponents of the new revolutionary government. During its first decade in power, the Castro government introduced a wide range of progressive social reforms. Laws were introduced to provide equality for black Cubans and greater rights for women, while there were attempts to improve communications, medical facilities, health, housing, and education. In addition, there were touring cinemas, art exhibitions, concerts, and theatres.
By the end of the s, all Cuban children were receiving some education compared with less than half beforeunemployment and corruption were reduced, and great improvements were made in hygiene and sanitation. His anti-discrimination legislation was his first and major attempt to give equality to the people of Cuba. His many reforms healthcare, education, and equality gave opportunities to those Afro-Cubans who lived in poverty because of the racial discrimination in Cuba.
The equal right of all citizens to health, education, work, food, security, culture, science, and wellbeing – that is, the same rights we proclaimed when we began our struggle, in addition to those which emerge from our dreams of justice and equality for all inhabitants of our world – is what I wish for all.
Castro’s government was entirely based on his ideologies of equality and fair measures for the people of Cuba. After he considered to have done everything in his power toward equality, he passed a legislation that counter-attacked his past anti-discrimination legislation.
This law made it illegal to even mention discrimination or the topic of equality. One of the first policies of the newly formed Cuban government was eliminating illiteracy and implementing land reforms. Land reform efforts helped to raise living standards by subdividing larger holdings into cooperatives. Comandante Sori Marinwho was nominally in charge of land reform, objected and fled, but was eventually executed when he returned to Cuba with arms and explosives, intending to overthrow the Castro government.
Shortly after taking power, Castro also created a revolutionary militia to expand his power base among the former rebels and the supportive population. Local CDRs were tasked with keeping “vigilance against counter-revolutionary activity”, keeping a detailed record of each neighborhood’s inhabitants’ spending habits, level of contact with foreigners, work and education history, and any “suspicious” behavior.
Cuba began expropriating land and private property under the auspices of the Agrarian Reform Law of 17 May Farms of any size could be and were seized by the government, while land, businesses, and companies owned by upper- and middle-class Cubans were nationalized notably, including the plantations owned by Fidel Castro’s family.
Inthe Cuban government nationalized all property held by religious organizations, including the dominant Roman Catholic Church.
Hundreds of members of the church, including a bishop, were permanently expelled from the nation, as the new Cuban government declared itself officially atheist. Education also saw significant changes — private schools were banned and the progressively socialist state assumed greater responsibility for children.