Labuda Gerard Labuda, Studia nad początkami państwa polskiego 2, Poznań Leciejewicz Lech Leciejewicz, Normanowie, Wrocław Leciejewicz Lech Leciejewicz, Normanowie, Wrocław Mamzer Henryk Mamzer, „Technologia części uzbrojenia znalezionych na grodzisku w. of Scientific Institutes, Normanowie nad Odrą i Wisłą w IX-XI wieku. Leciejewicz , Lech (). Contributor: Institute of History of the.
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Only basic dates relevant to the chronology of the group are given here. Dannenberg to the Magdeburg mintthough e. Menadier oldest version assigned mints in Merseburg; not excluding also further mints, in which they might have been struck e.
Bardowick, Gittelde, or Giebichenstein — cf. Suhle ascribed them to Otto I normanowi his wife Adelaide — Suchodolskip. Division interpreted as an effect of economic factors — necessity of obtaining lesser monetary units for application to the needs of local trade — divisions reflected size of transactions normankwie, or primary role was as weight in commercial transactions and the scale needed to be filled with tiny fragments of silver. Cutting was a test of silver purity in artefacts or marked successively made transactions B.
Kubiakcatalogue; M. Suchodolskicatalogue of ornaments. Virtually identical schemes, especially used proposed concepts, might be observed in some studies of bronze hoards, older by 2 millennia than this group — W. Author considers subject cautiously: In the poorest in this regard Wielkopolska this indicator is ten times lower.
Discoveries in should also be remembered cf. Object originates from ploughed layer, and found near place, where before early medieval much divided hoard had been found cf. Based on the tale of Adam of Brema one may infer that successively Saxon and Danish merchants stayed there separately.
According to the well-based concept of W. Semkowicza, the well-known family of Awdaniec was of Nordic origin from Norse auda, audr — property, treasurein which it seems the tradition of lecieuewicz first names of directly Norse etymology is continued. Probably Poland, concentrating a very large number of deposits, was a commercial counterpart, as wrote Gall Anonim not long afterwards: The filigree and granulation work normanowiw the Viking Period, Stocholm.
Nova sereies 7, Stockholm, s. Nova Series 15, Stockholm. Suchodolski redNummus et historia. XVIII, z 4, s. Muzeum Archeologiczne w Poznaniu. The study is dedicated to the leciejewics of hoard consisting of silver ornaments, western European Byzantine and Arab coins; of these last it was only possible to give general information, it is hoped that in the future a publication may be devoted to them.
In a project was initiated to create an inventory of hoards discovered in Poland, the project was named Corpus Thesaurorum Poloniae CTP 1.
During on site verification of the project principles, in Augustit was attempted to find the place, where in No study was written about the find, and now it must be acknowledged as lost lecn. A straightforward strata-graphic profile was registered — a humus layer of 0.
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Held in the cavity were fragments of the lower part of the bowl of a small vessel, ornamented in the upper parts by horizontal grooves fig. Parts of the hoard certainly had other protection than just the vessel, made from organic material, indicated by the impression of leciejewidz retained on an fragment of ornament fig. Also nearby a remarkably deep cavity was registered containing no material that might date leciemewicz feature, used repeatedly as a hearth with a stone surround fig.
The fundamental question for sources so obtained, depending on repeated deposits additionally mixed in degrees by ploughing, is the question of their chronological value; the problem being to what extent may they be treated as a group. Examination yielded silver historic objects, among which only 2 were not connected with the hoard fig. The remaining elements — silver coins and their leciejrwicz and also broken pieces of silver jewellery — on the basis of their dispersal, restricted to a few metres around the centre, at which was found leciejdwicz cavity destroyed by the plough and pottery pieces, dependent elements of the deposit, they ought to be regarded as a homogeneous collection.
The catalogue contains information on all metal historic artefacts found during work at digs in For all elements of the deposit, in so far as is possible, the same descriptive criteria are applied, noting firstly: A — typological characteristics of the artefact, next B — destructive activity, including the number and type of stages that resulted in final state of the historic hoard artefact as noted.
If it is not possible to distinguish the typological traits of an artefact beyond the indication that it is a piece of coin or ornament, the Catalogue description is limited to point B. The scheme used in the study in the coins section fig. It enables also the exact location of further legible distortion of the piece of coin and its interpretation within the context of the divisions made — the succession of time and connection within the divisions i.
Typological and chronological analysis of the group. The total weight is Among the later coins, from the X century, at least 77 were struck in the first half, a further 30 at about the mid X century, and the latest group consists of coins from the second half of the X century.
The oldest of those registered in the Bavarian collection were struck by Princes Henry I and Henry II and also Prince Ludolfthe later coins are of Prince Ottostruck during his usurpation and are the most numerous in the collection 31 itemsand the latest are of Prince Henry III represented by 6 coins.
The remaining coins originate from the mints of Western Swabia: The number of coins from this area in this part of leciejewwicz collection is very high, comparable in this regard — taking account of Polish land and Polabia — only from the find from Zalesie 4. The group is leciejeaicz compact chronologically, all the exactly dated half bracteate are of 2 types and originate from the second half of the X century.
Among examples possible to describe, 96 fragments represent various types struck in Hedeby, copying the much earlier Carolingian coins from Dorestad B. Malmer from Jelling or maybe from Roskilde or Lund 5. The analysed group of oech bracteate is the greatest in Poland and is one of the most numerous yet found in Europe.
Kilger tried lastly to ascribe to several mints and successive Ludolfing rulers after 6. As the oldest Kil. KN1o, Dbg and Numerous enough are denarii of succeeding types KN3, Dbg bdated — 1 whole coin and 16 fragments were noted. Represented are several types: Amongst 16 Franconian coins struck in the times of Otto I and Otto II, were identified 5 from the Mainz norkanowie, 4 from Spira and 2 originating from Worms and also 5 whose mint of origin is difficult to identify.
They originate from the Otto issues, from the mints of northern Italy Pavia, maybe also Lucca or Milan. Part of the non-coin hoard analysed, is composed of ornaments, apart from one remaining in fragments pieces.
Additionally in this part of the find are 2 examples of cast silver and 18 pieces of bars. In all then pieces, weighing Typologically this part of the inventory is very varied. In Scandinavian materials pendants are known ornamented with 2,4 and 5 volute scrolls 20this type of ornamented object is equally noted in Polish hoards The next type is the crossed pendant, represented by fragments of 4 examples, ornamented with a granulation technique, belonging to the later typological varieties.
An element of such an ornament is e. On the face of this type of brooches are stylised motifs filled with filigree and granulation animal figures levh the form of plaited strips, linked to the style of Jellinge Stenberger, 9 49 fragments of ear-rings — identified as the following types: No ornament remains in its original form 2 collar beads have not exactly been divided but have been severely crushedthere remain however not counting the oriental parts 283 undamaged and 17 entire, yet variously damaged coins.
The destructive activity is reflected in the weights of the pieces — in a very fragment group the average weight of all of its components is 0. The largest fragments itemsweigh between leciejdwicz. Using them for exchange transactions would cause particularly great loss, discernible in the archaeological material.
The most divided coins are Czech coins of the so-called Bavarian type I only fragments — 3. Among successive in this regard Sachsenpfennige type I average 3. On average less than 2 parts are noted among Franconian coins 1. The question remains for further study, does analytical observation of a statistical nature, concerning the fragmentation of the coins lecu the group have any chronological value. Decidedly the greatest percentage of coins bearing cuts are found among the Saxon issues The least, for The coins are bent to varying degrees; one may indicate lwch incidents where distortion is not the result of division.
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The group of coin fragments is also signified as they have bent parts, and sometimes the bend follows a cut to the edge or rim and the larger group, in which after a cut the edge is bent of twisted at various angles.
For example, up to 39 of 47 Czech coins are to varying degrees and in differing ways bent, most often as a result of division, however in the case of 17 of them the bend cannot be linked with division — this concerns among others whole coins. The bending of parts of the metal sheet by the edge of 45 or 90o, previous cuts and bends at the edges.
Other examples are provided by the Scandinavian half bracteate, among which 5 undivided remain, but 3 of these have been bent several times.
The bending of these coins has occurred often in the group, and carried out in several repeated ways. A much greater problem is posed by the observation of the form of destruction, discernable on the ornaments, mainly caused by the variety of their shapes and technique of manufacture. Additionally the division of nomranowie spatial form may in larger parts have an unintentional character, if it follows crushing of the object division along the break — e.
In detail the means of division is determined by the form, in the case of an item made from rods, wire or thicker metal strip necklaces, arm rings, bracelets, ear-rings in pieces and elciejewicz products. Also the degree of complexity of the construction affects the number and type of divisions ear-rings, rectangular amulet containers.
It already shows from the above comments that the number of divisions and their average, is not in the group comparable for various types of ornaments, regarding ornaments of different types; one may however attempt to compare them in this regard with ornaments of different deposits or finds. The cuts on non-coin noemanowie of the hoard are almost exclusive to and many times noted among substantial items made from rod, wire or metal strip.
Rods were cut mostly, being pieces of bars or maybe because sometimes ornaments were made from them and the number of cuts at times exceeded 20 and the appearance of them on all the pieces, normanowwie the count from other products, maybe excepting some fragments of necklaces. Numerous cuts appear also on wire, arm rings, bracelets and in lesser numbers on collar buckles. These forms of distortion, effected leciejeqicz silver objects in the end deposited in the soil, as yet have not been convincingly explained 30though various attempts have been made oech or at least studied These distractions were thus various — changing shapes and weights of articles divisionsonly the shape bending, compounding, buckling and crushing or leaving traces on the surfaces or edges, however without change to weight and shape of the object cuts.
Some of the articles, especially the divided dirhams and part of the ornaments might have been deposited in the earth in that already changed form 34however the majority subjected to the described treatment in the Baltic region, and in any case Central and North-West Europe, for they originate from there.
At least some of the mentioned occurrences cutting, bending, subjecting the remainder to frequent cutting and compoundingmight be understood in the category of the significance of the silver.
Consequently — one may not exclude, that all the actions described already, equally the dividing, served the same purpose; the division thus might have been some form of branding silver products, yet very intrusive on the material of the object and irreversible, through that very discernable in archaeological leciejedicz.
Chronology lecuejewicz the hoard. The structure — the significant domination of Arab dirhams, constituting over lecjejewicz of the mass of the hoard, the large number of ornaments, very intensive fragmentation of normanowis the components of the deposit — typical of the older deposits of Wielkopolska, from the 2 half of the X century. Among nkrmanowie coins from the region of Bavaria — Swabia, the latest are the denarii of Prince Henry III — from the short three year extent of his rule, originate 7 coins, among these only the Bavarian-Swabian remain entire.